Bio 004,CH17, College of the Desert
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Eukaryotic, multicellular, hetero-trophic organisms that obtain nutrients by ingestion
2. Most possess muscle & nerve cells
3. Heterotrophic –by ingestion
4. Most reproduce sexually
- 1. Diploid (2n) stage is dominant.
- 2. Cleavage: Succession of mitotic divisions without cell growth between cycles. Blastula - hollow ball of cells; Gastrula - solid ball of cells developing into embryonic tissues
- 3.Larva: Sexually immature form of an animal morphologically distinct from the adult.
- 4. Metamorphosis: Resurgence of development, transforming the larva into an adult.
Causes of the
- a) Predator-prey relationships
- b) Genetic variation
No body plan; amorphic Example: sponges
Body plan in which arms radiate from a central axis. Example: anemones, jellyfish
Body plan in which a division at midline separates the organism into left/right halves that are mirror images. Example: some invertebrates, vertebrates.
Fluid-filled sac separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall.
Cushions suspended organs in fluid ;
Provides shape and support in invertebrates ;
Internal organs move independently of outer wall
- Animals without a backbone.Comprise 95% of the Animal Kingdom.
Animals with variable body temperature that changes with the environment Cold-blooded or exothermic.
Non-motile animals; usually firmly attached to a substrate. While adults tend to be sessile, sperm & larvae are free-swimming allowing for fertilization & dispersal.
Animals that use cilia or other appendages to create water currents to strain food from water.
- 1. Pharyngeal slits
- 2. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
- 3. Notochord
- 4. Post-anal tail
- Three Major Classes
Legless, aquatic algae-eater with gills, a lateral line system, and a long-finned tail
Four-legged, terrestrial insect-eater, with lungs instead of gills and external eardrums instead of a lateral line system.
Fluid-filled egg enclosed in a shell, inside of which an embryo develops.
1. Lone-surviving lineage of dinosaurs that died out 65 mya.
2. Evolution of Flight – Modifications
a) Feathers & wings for pectoral appendages
b) Light and pneumatic (air-filled) bones
c) Keeled sternum for aerodynamics and muscles
d) Large vision centers in brain for visual stimuli
e) Small lungs, no urinary bladder, & reduced reproductive tract (♀); oviparous (egg-layer)
f) Homeothermic with 4-chambered heart
Organisms with body temperatures that remain constant independent of environmental temperatures “Warm-blooded” or endothermic
Mammals: Three Major Groups
1. Monotremes: Egg-laying mammals.
2. Marsupials: Pouched mammals.
3. Eutherians: Placental mammals.
Mammals: General Characteristics
- 1) Hair and Fur
- 2) Limbs carried beneath body
- 3. Large brain case – large brain
- 4. Heterodont teeth
- 5. Testes descended into a scrotum; most lacking a cloaca; viviparous
- 6. Milk production in females
- 7. Homeothermic with 4-chambered heart
Members of the mammalian order that include lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
Members of the mammalian order primates that include monkeys, apes, and humans.
Members of the mammalian order primates that include apes (gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees) and humans.
Evolution of Primates
1. Limber shoulder joints
2. Opposable thumbs
3. Nails instead of claws
4. Color binocular vision
Two Points Regarding
1. Humans did not evolve from chimpanzees, but shared a common ancestor 5 – 7 mya
2. Human evolution is not a direct line from more primitive hominids to modern man, but a tree including distantly related relatives
1) Lived 6 – 7 mya (oldest to date).
2) Shared derived characteristics:
a) Reduced canine teeth.
b) Relatively flat faces.
c) More upright & bipedal
1. Lived between 2 – 4 mya
2. Smaller heads – smaller brains
3. Upright walking & bipedalism
4. Long arms – arboreal locomotion (?)
5. Long lower jaw
1. Lived 600,000 – 30,000 years ago
2. Larger brain – extensive tool use
A) Tools made of stone/wood
3. Thick boned, heavy hominid
4. Prominent brow ridge
5. Not a direct ancestor of Homo sapiens
1. Emerged 195,000 – 160,000 years ago, out of Africa, then migrated north & east
2. Language, more cognitive thought
3. No prominent brow ridge
4. Slender body
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