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Repositories for data used to hold information
Internal intellectual actions that transfer information from the environment into memory and from one memory store to another. (Bringing environment to memory to the brain)
- Knowledge about & control of cognitive processes.
- (Thinking about your thoughts)
Problems with analyzing Information Processes?
- 1. Emotions not addressed
- 2. Doesn't explain age difference
- 3. Doesn't explain "nature" of people
Questions when asking about the "nature" of people?
- How do they learn and develop?
- Importance of thinking?
- Relationship between learning and development?
- ACTIVE or PASSIVE?
- What role do EMOTIONS play?
Questions for educator's acheivements?
- Educational goals?
- Educational methodologies?
- Educational purposes?
GMP - Gimp. Gimp leg. Dancing.
Questions about achievement?
- Definition of achievement?
- Factors that contribute to achievement?
- Factors that contribute to lack of achievement?
What are the three types of memory stores?
- Sensory Memory
- Working (Short-term) Memory
- Long-Term Memory
- Information store that briefly holds environmental stimuli until they can be further process
- (Takes in everything you receive from environment)
- Information store that retains the information with which the person is consciously working.
- (Contains the information the person is currently thinking about)
Limitations of working memory?
- Limited in capacity -- 7 items of information
- (+/- 2 for adults, less for children)
- Limited in duration -- The period of time is limited
- Technique of dealing with working memory
- Combines small (meaningful) units together
Examples of chunking?
- Telephone numbers
- Social security numbers
- Letter strings
- Technique of dealing with working memory
- Makes some mental operations automatic that they can be performed with little effort
- (Applies both declarative and procedural knowledge)
Two techniques for overcoming Working memory deficiency?
- Permanent Information store (?)
- Unlimited capacity (?)
- (the place where information is remembered)
How does information get remembered?
- ENCODINGTransferred from working (short-term) memory to long-term memory. . . it's put in your memory (meaningful association!)
- Recalled from long-term memory to working memory.
- . . . it's taken from your memory to the forefront of your brain.
- Facts, definitions, rules, generalizations
- LONG TERM
- Knowledge of how to perform activities (how to do things)
Remembering declarative knowledge
- Propositional Networks
- Linear orderings
- Used in declarative knowledge
- Remembering relationships
- MAKING CONECTIONS
- (Domestic cats are felines)
- (Balls roll)
- (Baseballs are covered with leather)
- (used in declarative knowledge)Classifying objects in a hierarchy.
- [Order of days of the week]
- [Order of the months in the year]
- (used in declarative knowledge)
- A mental image of an event that occured in a person's past
- [a mental image of a map]
Knowledge that represents a person's UNDERSTANDING of events, objects, and actions.
COMBINES PROPOSITIONS, IMAGES, AND LINEAR ORDERINGS.
- Implementing knowledge via reacting to conditions
- (Knowing what to do when adding fractions)
- A STRATEGY FOR ACTION
- Attention - focusing
- Perception - finding meaning
- Rehearsal - continually repeating information
- Encoding - forming mental representations of information
- Retrieval - recalling information from L-T memory
- forgetting... failing to retrieve information from long term memory....
What is important in making encoding and retrieval work?
- Good strategies help kids learn and remember.
Successful students are good at making ______.
Poor students are not good at making ______.
Good teachers show children ____ to learn, and ___ to become effective strategy makers.
- The learner's knowledge about her/his own cognitive processes
- The ability to use self-regulatory mechanisms to control these processes
What makes an effective learner?
- They're aware of what works for them.
- They engage in strategies to help them learn.
- They monitor their own learning.
How does self regulation work?
- Set a goal,
- Self-assessment -- determine what is needed to reach the goal
- Self-judgement -- determine whether learning strategies are succeeding.
- Self-reaction -- be aware of how you feel about the process.
Piaget was involved with what "ism"
Piaget's constructivism is basically..?
An organismic-developmental approach
Define genetic epistemology
A biological study of how we come to know what we know.
What are the two different views of learning and understanding knowledge?
- Learning approach to knowledge
- Developmental approach to knowledge
Human organisms are ____
Piagets theory is based on _______
For Piaget, intelligence is measured by how we _____, not by how much ______ we have accumulated.
Two processes of development?
- Organization - (by stages)
- Adaptation - (by assimilation and accomodation)
Mechanisms of Accomodation
Characteristics of stages
- Each stage:
- represents a level of intelligence,
- is QUALITATIVELY different, higher level, more intelligent way of thinking about the world,
- develops as a result of interacting with environment
- develops in a universal, invariant sequence
- Formal operational
- Concrete operational
In Piaget's theory, how much emphasis is on behavior?
We know very little from behavior; the logic that produces the behavior is what is more important. Behavior tells us NOTHING unless we know the reasoning that produced it.
According to Piaget, how does theory define achievement?
Development of thinking defines achievement.
According to Piaget, what are the factors that contribute to achievement?
A problem-centered learning environment, in which the learner is permitted to follow their CURIOSITY and to EXPERIMENT with the materials presented.
Fundamentals of child problem solving in Piaget's theory?
Interaction with the physical world - PROBLEM SOLVING.
"Play is a child's work."
Piaget thinks development through stages requires ____
Interaction with the environment.
A piagetian scheme is a way of htinking about a particular aspect of the environment.
Causes individual to reogranize at a higher, more adaptive level.
Purpose of social interaction in Piagetian principles?
Develops one's reasoning by interacting and reasoning with others.
Taking new information from the environment into our existing structures. (LEARNING MORE)
For Piaget, change is both quantitative and ______.
Changing one's structures in response to new information. (UNDERSTANDING BETTER)
Piaget's theory, at a basic level.
Our thinking develops, and that enables us to learn.
Learning Theory at its basic level (not Piaget)
We learn, and that is how our thinking develops.
- Learning by physically acting on the environment
- (How infants learn)
An operation is _____
A MENTAL ACTION.
Piaget: "Intelligence is action. Mentally acting on the environment enables learning and development."
Internal mental pictures begin to develop
Concrete Operational Intelligence
- Applying operations to the concrete world.
- (moving mentally in space)
- (moving mentally up and down)
- (considering two aspects of a physical problem simultaneously)
Formal operational intelligence
- Reasoning logically about possibilities; no longer confined to the concrete world.
- Application of operations to hypotheticals and abstract things.
- (Understanding ratios, combinations, possibilities, metaphors, etc)
Psychosexual Theory involves:
Sex (Freud Psychosex theory)
Something that brings bodily pleasure (not only genital)
Libido (psy.sex. theory)
Erogenous zone (psysextheory)
Area of the body on which sexual energy is concentrated (one that brings bodily pleasure)
Freudian Personality constructs
Fruedian Stages of development
Freud and education
Freud implies that education should be about concern for students' emotional health and welfare - people whose emotional needs are met will learn.
Stage characteristics (Freud)
- Each stage is a part of the body in which libido is centered during that stage.
- They are not sequential.
- They are not hierarchal.
- Regression and fixation at a stage may occur.
innate, motivated by pleasure, source of libido, contains basic drives (hunger, aggression, anger, destrcution)
Contains no logic or rational thoughts, just desires.
- Develops when the id comes into contact with reality
- Governed by reality principle
- Uses reasoning in order to come to conclusions
- Delays actions until they are reasonable.
- Result of internalizing parental standards
- Has both:
- Conscience, and Ego Ideal
Tells us what not to do, and punishes us if we do something wrong by giving us guilt. (negative aspect of superego)
Ego ideal (superego)
- Tells us what to do:
- Provides goals, source of ideals
- (positive aspect of the superego)
Oral stage (Freud)
- Occurs at infancy - libido is centered at mouth.
- Early period (first few months) characterized by narcissism. AND Later period, characterized by urge to bite and by separation anxiety.
Oral stage fixation (Freud)
- Preoccupation with:
- Eating, biting (pencils!), smoking, loquaciousness.
- Regression may be caused by stress or frustration - the stronger a fixation, the more likely to regress to that stage.
Anal stage (freud)
- Libido focus on anus and various products.
- Child is asked to renounce instincts and become toilet-trained.
- Usually results in an anger and testing of the parents.
Anal stage fixation (freud)
- Anal compulsive: Neat freak
- Anal expulsive: Sloppy, messy, disorganized
- Obsessive compulsive behaviors can be traced to fixation at this tage.
Phallic (oedipal) stage (Freud)
- Libido is at penis.
- Competition with father for affection or mother - fear of castration (anxiety)
- Regression of sexual feelings for mother (superego)
- Identification with father and father's ideals and projecting sexual feelings onto other women.
Oedipal stage fixation (freud)
- Guilt over competitive urges
- Apprehension in competition with other men
- Problems with intimacy
- Less guilt with women who are seen as outlets
Phallic stage (girls) (freud)
- PENIS ENVY HAHAHAHA
- Identification with the father
- Lack of castration anxieties leads to a weaker superego
Latency stage (freud)
- Age 6-12
- Libido is latent, although not gone
- More self control
- More intellect than emotion - LEARNING.
Genital stage (freud)
- Libido "attacks" the ego. Stress, anxiety, turmoil, and loss of confidence. "sturm und drang"
- Adult sexual feelings cause much sexual and social conflict and a looking for one's place and role in life.
- Freeing oneself from parents is the primary task of the adolescent.
Defense mechanisms (freud)
- (Adolescents coping with stress)
- Taking flight - isolation
- Contempt for parents
- Asceticism - strict diets, rigorous exercise, refusal to participate in "fun" activities
- Intellectualization - construction of elaborate philosophies, identification
Humanism (Maslow) Postulates
- Humans are good, active and reactive, separate from animals, aware, perceptive, and intentional.
- For behavior to change, self-perceptions must change.
- Humans have free will and responsibility.
Humanism (Maslow) ideals
Develop the innate potential of every person - let each person become ALL they are capable of becoming.
Helping each individual self-actualize.
- Reach your full potential through self-actualization!
- Human values are good and happy fun!
- We need democracy to do this!
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
- Self-actualizing needs (aesthetic and intellectual)
- Esteem needs
- Love and belonging needs
- Safety needs
- Physiological needs
Deprivation of Needs (Humanism)
- The less a person is deprived of a need, the more a subsequent deprivation can be tolerated.
- (if you want people to be able to tolerate hunger, make sure they're never hungry)
- (If you want people to be able to tolerate danger, make sure they're always safe)
Deprivation of needs logic...
- If you want people to be able to tolerate frustration, don't frustrate them.
- If you want people to be able to tolerate failure, be certain they succeed often.
- If you want people to be able to tolerate humiliation, be certain you are constantly supportive of and caring toward them.
Emotional health (Humanism)
- Proper emotional development is crucial to curiosity and creative thinking.
- One knows nothing from behavior.
Humanistic goals for educators
Emotional health! Nuturing! Facilitate - help children pursue their own interests. Each child is unique!
Hierarchical and sequential (humanism?)
- Hierarchy is successive and sequential
- Sequential, however, does not mean hierarchial.
An individual is motivated by her/his most potent _________.
- UNSATISFIED NEED
Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- All people are born with the same genetic abilities to assimilate and accomodate.
- All societies present people with the same moral challenges.
Heinz Dilemma example?
Wife's dying. Drug can cure, but it costs a lot of money that husband can't buy. Should he break into the lab and steal the drug for his wife?! DILEMMA!
- Post-conventional (universal, social contract)
- Conventional (law and order, good and bad)
- Pre-conventional (Instumental hedonism, punishment and obedience)
Pre-conventional reasoning (KOHLBERG)
- No ability to take the perspective of another.
- The idea that "what's moral is what's good for me"
- Stage 1: I do which brings reward, I avoid which brings pain. (please powerful others)
- Stage 2: I now have the ability to understand that others have motivations. (I think that others have the same selfish motivation, therefore I try to manipulate others to get my way - back scratching)
Conventional Reasoning (Kohlberg)
- What is moral is what is normative and legal. (rules and laws are now more important than individual desires)
- Stage 3: Conventional reasoning - law/rule following.
- Stage 4: Morality consists of following the law and abiding by agreements. Following understandings, disagreements are settled in court.
Post-conventional Reasoning (Kohlberg)
- Protecting individual's rights is the basis of morality.
- What is moral is what is just.
- Stage 5: Social contract morality - start to judge laws.
- Stage 6: Reasoning is based on a universal principle of morality. No longer tied with a particular political system. (Golden rule)
Kohlberg's universal principle of morality.
GOLDEN RULE BABY.
- Whatever brings the most happiness to everyone.
- (Winners win more than the losers lose)
Psychosocial Development (compared to freud's psychoSEXUAL development)
- (psychosocial) (who is it??!)
- There is a natural, predetermined order to development.
- Each person develops through a sequence of stages that emerge from this preset plan.
- People develop by crisis at each stage.
- A person's social environment has an extremely important effect on how each crisis is solved, but it doesn't determine the order in which stages emerge.
If the test says something about _____ vs. ______, you're going to assume it is?
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
Erikson has to do with
Piaget has to do with
Placing importance on how we learn - CONSTRUCTIVISM.
Freud has to do with
Maslow has to do with
Humanism - happy feelings and development and stuff
Kohlberg has to do with