Endocrine System: Diagnostic Terms

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Endocrine System: Diagnostic Terms
2011-07-06 20:59:49
medterm ch11 quiz5

Quiz 5
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  1. Cushing syndrome
    collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of corticol hormone from any cause, such as a result of excessive production by the adrenal gland, or more commonly as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid hormones such as prednisone for asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or other inflammatory diseases; symptoms include:

    • upper body obesity
    • facial puffiness
    • hyperglycemia
    • weakness
    • thin and easily bruised skin with stretch marks
    • hypertension
    • osteoporosis
  2. adrenal virilism
    excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult woman owing to tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by amenorrhea (absense of menstruation), acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice
  3. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    metabolic disorder caused by an abnormal utilization of insulin secreted by the pancreas; evidenced by hyperglycemia and glucosuria
  4. insulin
    hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Landerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
  5. type 1 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes in which there is no beta cell production of insulin -- the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
  6. type 2 diabetes mellitus
    diabetes in which the body produces insuline, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance -- the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
  7. hyperinsulinism
    condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
  8. pancreatitis
    inflammation of the pancreas
  9. hyperparathyroidism
    hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
  10. hypoparathyroidism
    hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
  11. pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    considered the master gland because it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles
  12. acromegaly
    disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
  13. diabetes insipidus
    condition of abnormal increase in urine output most commonly caused by inadequate secretion of pituitary antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); symptoms include polyuria and polydipsia; urine appears colorless due to inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine
  14. pituitary dwarfism
    condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone slowing growth and causing a short yet proportionate stature -- often treated during childhood with growth hormone
  15. pituitary giantism
    condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
  16. goiter
    enlargement of the thryoid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
  17. hyperthyroidism/Graves disease/thyrotoxicosis
    condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by exophthalmia, tachycardia, goiter and tumor
  18. hypothyroidism
    condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
  19. myxedema
    advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin
  20. cretinism
    condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed