Music History Medieval

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jabeck
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Music History Medieval
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2011-07-16 17:19:31
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terms for medieval music history
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  1. Mass
    • for public worship; re-creation of the Last
    • Supper
  2. Proper
    • portions of
    • the Mass performed on special occasions, such as Introit, Gradual, Alleluia,
    • Offertory
  3. Ordinary
    • portions of
    • the Mass performed for all occasions – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
  4. Liber usualis
    book containing chants for mass and Office – late 19th c. – Abbey Solesmes
  5. Introit
    portion of the Proper
  6. Hymn
    – strophic song of praise, non-Biblical text
  7. Sequence
    A type of trope including text and music, which was added to the end of a pre-existing chant (sequence=to follow). ex: Jubilus (Balbalus) Alleluia, Mass for Easter Sunday. Double Versicle form: phrases: a b ccccc…ddddd…alleluia/amen
  8. Divine Offices
    Canonical Hours – for clergy only, performed at times of day that correspond to the events of crucifixion. Matins (2am), Lauds (pre-sunrise), Prime (6 am), Terce (9 am), Sext (noon), Nones (3 pm), Vespers (evening), Compline (bedtime)
  9. Psalmody
    singing of psalms
  10. Psalms
    centerpiece of Divine Office; admonitions
  11. Antiphon
    text that frames a psalm (antiphon-psalm-antiphon) – ex. Mass for Easter Sunday, Introit
  12. Psalm Tones
    formulas for recitations of psalms; patterns for singing: Imitium, Tenor (recitation), Mediation (cadence in mid-phrase) , Tenor, termination
  13. Antiphonal
    two half-choirs (not necessarily antiphons; this term just meant alternating ensembles)
  14. Responsorial
    solo plus choir
  15. Direct Singing
    Everyone sings the same thing at the same time
  16. Plainchant
    Music of the church – purpose was to praise God, unmetered, not notated (synonymous with Gregorian chant/chant)
  17. Syllabic
    one note per syllable
  18. Neumatic
    a few notes per syllable
  19. Melismatic
    many notes per syllable
  20. Mode
    • classification of antiphonal melodic material (designed to classify Antiphon so that it ends in the place that leads into psalm text correctly.)
    • 1. Dorian 2. Hypodorian 3. Phrygian 4 . Hypophrygian 5. Lydian 6. Hypolydian 7. Mixolydian 8. Hypomixolydian Odds are authentic, evens are plagal.
  21. Final
    the last note of the chant, also the most important note
  22. Ambitus
    The range of the mode
  23. Tenor/Reciting Tone/Repercussa
    Second most important note in a chant (synonyms)
  24. Monasticism
    • The life of monks and nuns – service to religion is the way of life. St. Benedict established patterns for monastic life, including religious observances, service jobs for community (gardening, making wine, etc), vows such as poverty,chastity, etc., obedience, stability, conversio (vows). Monasteries propagated Christianity, strengthened the role of the Pope, and were places for learning.
    • Psalms were very important as life lessons.
  25. Trope
    material added to an existing chant – could be added words in an existing melisma, or added words and music (ex. Sequence)
  26. Liturgical drama
    religious (usually Biblical text), staged, has characters, teaches a moral lesson, is sung.
  27. Morality play (play of virtues)
    "OrdoVirtutum” von Bingen mid-12th c. Drama about the Christian life for people who couldn’t read or understand the mass. Morals were often personified, characters such as evil and man. Concepts of sin, repentance, and forgiveness were taught this way.
  28. Hildegard von Bingen
    Started a monastery, grew up in church. Had visions from the time she was three years old. Wrote morality plays, such as “Ordo Virtutum”
  29. Oberammergau
    Town in Germany known for its Passion Play performed every 10 years in gratitude to God for being spared from the plague
  30. Jongleurs
    French secular musicians/jugglers/dancers – vagabond, lower class, variety show, social outcasts (S. France, 9th, 10th c)
  31. Goliards
    students in training to become priests or clergy (11th- 12th c.)
  32. Carmina Burana
    song book of goliard songs – secular subjects, Latin rather than vernacular
  33. Troubadour
    S. France, 12th c. not traveling, upper crust, “courtly love” knights, chivalry, unrequited love, duty, honor above all else
  34. Trouvères
    N. France equivalent to troubadour – wrote in langue d’oie dialogue (female: troubaritz, ex. Beatriz de Dia)
  35. Courtly Love
    unrequited love, subject of minnesinger
  36. Minnesinger
    German speaking lands, singers of courtly love songs (unrequited love). Similar to troubadour, upper class, (12-14th c.) frauenlied (women’s song of longing), tagelied (day song), alba (song of lovers parting at dawn), and Kruzlied (cross songs about the Crusades). Lots of pictures and poetry has survived. Bar form AAB. A section – stolen; B section - abgesang
  37. Walther von der Vogelweide
    famous minnesinger
  38. Meistersinger
    Southern Germany. Trained in a union-like system. 14th-17th c.Secular, learned songs, poetry, certain tunes and strict rules of singing. Performed a Masterpiece after completing apprenticeship (final exam). Middle class – religious (NOT courtly love) Song contests each month
  39. Hans Sachs
    early 16th c. German poet. Wrote “silverweise” (p.11, anth) Leading Meistersinger of Nuremburg school. 4000 master songs, 2000 fables, tales in verse (schwanke), morality plays, farces. Many later adapted as Protestant hymn tunes. Principal character in Wagner’s Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg. AAB songs
  40. Bar form
    two verses and a second part. Text is different for both verses
  41. Organum
    a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance, polyphonic embellishment to a solo section of plainchant, during the solo parts of antiphonal sections, starts with the preexisting material and adds to it.
  42. Parallel Organum
    Organum with another part that is sung at a set interval above the original melody, usually a 5th apart, not written out
  43. free organum
    A variety of perfect intervals are used, not parallel the whole time
  44. Florid Organum
    anywhere from 2 to 6 notes in the organal voice sung over a single sustained note in the tenor
  45. Vox principalis
    The original notated melody, tenor, chant, written in black
  46. vox organalis
    unnotated second melody, added voice
  47. Organum purum
    long unmeasured notes in the CF, fixed song – pre-existing tune used as the structural voice in a new composition
  48. Discant Style
    Technique of using the rhythmic modes
  49. Discant Clausula
    little section of plainchant in modal rhythm
  50. Notre Dame School
    Leonin and Perotin, 12th c. Paris, melismatic organum, added new material: Organum purum and discant style
  51. Anonymous IV
    Wrote Magnus liber organi (Big Book of Organum) – early 13th c.
  52. Magnus liber organi
    “Big Book of Organum” – Anon. IV, early 13th c. contains common chants, subst/disc clausula, to be used whenever needed. His treatise introduced us to Leonin and Perotin.
  53. Cantus Firmus
    original chant melody, used as structural base for other compositions, usually in the tenor voice
  54. Motet
    Discant clausula with added text, sacred or secular, Latin or French, early 13th c.
  55. Double motet
    Another line added above to make it three voice polyphony, each voice with its own text, horizontal motion, no interaction except for perfect intervals at the cadence, short phrases so the voices stay together, no bar lines or meter, non-imitative.
  56. Duplum/Triplum
    added voices of the motet; the tenor was the original voice
  57. Musica ficta
    added by the performers but not notated, for example, making a note sharp or flat to avoid tritones
  58. Mensural notation
    the shape, size, and color of the notation makes a difference in the various note values. Symbol specific notation and proportional note values. Franco of Cologne wrote in the mid 14th c. Ars cantus mensurabilis – The Art of Measured Song. Tempus and prolation – know how to figure this out!!!!
  59. Ars nova
    An era of new developments and a specific treatise. Isorhythmic motets come out of this period. First ½ of 14th c.
  60. Philippe de Vitry
    Acomposer and theorist, he wrote the treatise Ars nova. Music is divided into dupole or triple configurations, mensuration signs created, dots begin to be added to notes, meter signs. Vitry invented the minim and codified other note values.His notation makes more complicated rhythms possible.
  61. Isorhythmic motet
    Comes out of Ars Nova – 14th c. refers specifically to the way composers treat pitch and rhythm in the tenor. Pitch – color; rhythm – talea. It was a proportional system where the Color and Talea were used like a formula and plugged in together until they ended at the same time.
  62. Roman de Fauvel
    Political satire of the Ars nova, many of these pieces had music by de Vitry and text by de Bus.They made fun of the people of the court and corruption. Fauvel was a donkey. Name was an acronym
  63. Formes fixes
    Text in Medeival French, mostly monophonic, newly composed, fit into pre-existing structure:
  64. Ballade
    formes fixes: AAB (bar form) based on poetic form: ab ab cc dD
  65. Rondeau
    formes fixes: shares poetic form: AB aA ab AB
  66. Virilae
    formes fixes: shares poetic form: AbbaA
  67. canon
    • musical puzzle
    • imitative polyphony
  68. Mannerism
    refined, complex, and demanding music of Ars Subtilior
  69. Ars subtilior
    Decorated scores, written in shape of heart or harp, for example. Difficult style of music written in reaction to Pope John XXII taking away florid styles and polyphony.
  70. Trecento
    Marigals, ballatas, Caccia; the Italian version of Ars nova, during the 1300’s Pope John XXII eliminated complexity in music, resulted in secular music that went in a new direction
  71. Squarcialupi Codex
    Big book of scores, madrigals, highly illuminated scores, lots of pieces by Landini, 12 composers and 354 pieces of music
  72. Countenance Angloise
    • "English face"
    • panconsonance
    • Quam pulchra es - Dunstable
  73. fauxbourdon
    • parallel first inversion chords
    • one voice was improvised
    • European music of 15th c. - ex. Quam pulchra es,
    • another ex.: Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys - Dufay
  74. Isorhythmic motet
    Uses repetitions of the talea (rhythm) and color (pitches), which, if uneven in length, are repeated until they end together.
  75. Renaissance Motet
    no fixed place in the mass or Office, usually Latin, liturgical
  76. Motet-Renaissance vs. Medieval-examples in Flos florum
    • Renaissance:
    • Some triadic chordal sonorities
    • instrumental interlude
    • cadences are triadic
    • same text in all voices

    • Medieval:
    • Rhythmic stratification
    • 5th is emphasized at cadence
    • non-imitative polyphony
    • hockets

    Cantilena motet - florid, lyrical top voice over slower moving voices.
  77. Alternatim
    • mix of chant and polyphony found in some hymns
    • ex. Conditor, alme siderum (Dufay)
  78. Hymn
    • Strophic song of praise
    • ex. Conditor, alme siderum - Dufay
    • written for Mass
  79. Cantus Firmus Mass
    pre-existing tune is used as a structural element in a newly composed polyphonic mass
  80. points of imitation
    using a fragment of a monophonic tune that appears in all voices as a point of departure. Especially used in papraphrase masses. Imitation is used as a structural device in these masses. Imitation often occurs in pairs. Ex. Missa Pange Lingua (pange lingua was the original tune, fragmented - each fragment used as a point of imitation)
  81. Paraphrase mass
    uses a pre-existing monophonic model in fragments as points of imitation. Each point of imitation is used in all voices.
  82. Parody mass
    • Uses a pre-existing polyphonic model as a structural device for the Mass. This cantus firmus is found in all parts.
    • Ex. des Prez - Missa fortuna desperata based on Busnios's Fortuna desperata (Italian chanson)
  83. Contrafactum
    • addition of texts to pre-existing material: Ex: changing texts of drinking songs to make religious songs.
    • Ex. des Prez - Missa fortuna desperata - 3 voice original made 4 voices.
  84. Filippo Brunelleschi
    • early 15th c. - designed dome for Santa Maria del Fiore, cathedral in Florence
    • Nuper Rosarum Flores was comissioned for the opening of this cathedral
  85. Soggetto cavado delle vocale
    • "Subject carved out of the vowels"
    • refers to the process of taking only the vowels of a name and using them as a basis for a solfege-inspired c.f. Missa Freole dux Ferrariae by des Prez
  86. mensuration canon
    a polyphonic canon that is seperated by changes in proportion or mensuration, ex. missa Prolationem (Ockeghem) - top two voices have a mensuration canon going on (altus has one beat more than soprano); bottom two voices also have a mensuration canon (tempus changes) - 4 different mensuration signs are included
  87. Missa Cuiusvis Toni
    • Ockeghem
    • mass without a mode
    • can be performed in any of the authentic modes
  88. Petrucci
    • 1501 creator of printing press with movable type.
    • Published Odhecaton A
    • Process included 3 steps: staff, notes, text
  89. Odhecaton A
    First book of printed polyphonic music
  90. Pierre Attaignant
    • French creator of printing press with one block that has staff notes and words on it. This type of printing press lasted through 16th c. till 1750.
    • dance music, lute music, part books, instrumental music
  91. Dance music
    • regular rhythm/meter
    • improvised
    • lutes were popular
    • grouped in pairs such as pavane/galiard, then into suites/partitas
  92. Burgundian chanson
    • songs that include fauxbourdon
    • common in first half of Renaissance in Burgundy and lowlands
    • songs in French
    • Formes fixes
    • ex. Adieu, ces bons vins de Lannoys (Dufay)
    • 3 parts - melody + accompaniment
    • discant tenor techniques
    • 1st 1/2 of 15th c.
  93. Carnaval Songs
    • Mardi Gras type songs
    • popular in quattrocento in Italy (1400's)
    • Lorenzo d'Medici loved them
    • short, homophonic
    • 3-voice textures
    • about life and sex
  94. Savonarola
    • composer of frottola 2nd half of 15th c
    • religious fanatic and friar
  95. Bonfire of the Vanities
    • Savonarola burned "earthly things" in the center of Florence
    • end of 15th c.
    • Pope and deMedici family burned him
  96. Lauda
    • secular songs of the 1400's
    • Italy
    • religious themes
    • contrafactum - used pop songs and changed the words
  97. Isabella d'Este
    • noble in Mantua
    • sponsored Tromboncini and Cara
    • patron of music and arts
    • loved frottola
  98. Frottola
    • secular Italian vocal genres of late 15th, early 16th c.
    • texture is chordal
    • texts are often lighthearted, comic, or ironic
    • at least 3 voices
    • ex. des Prez's "El Grillo"
    • and Cara's "Hor venduto ho la speranza
  99. Early Italian madrigal
    • early 16th c
    • Songs for secular entertainment
    • early composers were Burgundian (Arcadelt, de Rore)
    • cultivated in Florence
    • little imitation
  100. Pietro Bembo
    • cardinal at Vatican
    • believed that madrigal should use fine poetry in Tuscan dialect (Dante, Petrarch, poets)
    • 1540's
  101. madrigalisms
    • word/text painting
    • Arcadelt, "Il bianco e dolce cigno", early 16th c.
  102. seconda prattica
    • de Rore - one of the first to use:
    • unexpected dissonances
    • meaning of text more important than harmonies
    • Monteverdi
  103. prima prattica
    • very consonant, strict rules
    • Palestrina
    • Artusi - theorist who criticized Monteverdi
  104. word painting
    syn. to madrigalism
  105. Late Italian madrigal
    • late 16th c.
    • higher level of poetry
    • thicker texture
    • more seamless
    • extreme madrigal: Gesualdo - Morro Lasso early 17th c
  106. English madrigal
    • late 16th c
    • "Now is the month of Maying"
    • lighter, sillier, double meanings
    • more pastoral
    • word painting still important
    • strophic
    • fa la la refrain
    • not based on It. madrigal
  107. Queen Elizabeth I
    • reign 1558-1603
    • well educated, multi lingual
    • dancer
    • played lute and harpsichord
    • "virgin queen"
    • Triumphs of Oriana - Morley - homage to the queen: all madrigals in this book must end with "Thus sang the nymphs/shepherds of Diana; long live fair Oriana"
  108. Thomas Morley
    • Published 1st book of English madrigals in homage to Queen Elizabeth:
    • The Triumphs of Oriana
    • all madrigals in this book must end with "Thus sang the nyphs/shepherds of Diana: Long live fair Oriana"
  109. Musica Transalpina
    • (Other side of the Alps)
    • late 16th c.
    • book of 33 Italian madrigals translated into English
    • more serious madrigals
  110. through-composed
    characteristic of late Italian madrigals - no discernible sections.
  111. Three Ladies of Ferrara
    • Famous for their virtuosic singing
    • Daily concerts for the Duke of Ferrara
    • T'amo mia vita (late 16th c.) - written for the group by Luzzaschi
  112. Musica reservata
    • also: Musica secreta
    • not intended for all audiences, only elite connoisseurs
    • Cacchini - composer
    • early 17th c
  113. Vesta
    • As Vesta was from Latmos Hill Descending
    • Weelkes
    • From The Triumphs of Oriana
    • Goddess - Vesta - refers to Queen Elizabeth
  114. virtuoso madrigal
    composed for more advanced singers such as the three ladies of ferrara
  115. Parisian chanson
    • secular
    • less formes fixes
    • not all were composed in Paris
    • all were in French
    • 4 voices
    • lighter, fast, no regular form
    • syllabic
    • duple meter
    • homophonic, occasional pts of imit., sectional
    • rhythm = long short short
    • de Sermisy - "Tant que vivray" early 16th c.
    • Janequin - "Chant des Oyseaulx" - song of the birds - mid-16th c.
  116. Reformation
    • Martin Luther voiced his concerns with Catholic Church - 95 theses, it was printed and many followers emerged. Catholic church demands his repentance, he refuses
    • "Priesthood of all believers"
    • faith should be informed
    • Lutherans still had Mass
    • Music is meant for congregational singing, didactic use
  117. Martin Luther
    • formerly a devout Catholic priest
    • 95 theses
    • translated Bible into German
    • wrote music for congregation (Chorales - monophonic, bar form, German)
    • felt that as long as music is being used in service to God, we have dominion
  118. 95 Theses
    • Martin Luther's grievances with the Catholic church
    • Nailed to University Cathedral door in 1517
    • Printed and widely distributed
  119. Indulgences
    Catholic fund raiser - "Get out of jail free"
  120. Chorale
    • 16th c. monophonic in bar form AAB
    • short phrases
    • stepwise
    • octave range
  121. Tenorlied
    • "Tenor song"
    • secular
    • German
    • simple tunes
    • 4 parts
    • cf in tenor or soprano
  122. lute songs
    • 1st genre of song + accompaniment
    • tabulature notation
    • "Come, Heavy Sleep" by dowland late 16th c
    • "Flow, My Tears" by dowland
  123. Counter-Reformation
    • corresponds to Council of Trent mid-15th c.
    • Catholic response to Reformation
    • Catholics are losing money bc of so many people converting to Protestantism
    • some reforms, no more indulgences
    • music's role was addressed:
    • no secular genres, modest use of instr's, less complicated music
  124. Council of Trent
    • 1545-1563
    • Catholics met to discuss how to respond to Protestant Reformation
    • Counter Reformation included some reform, no more indulgences
    • music was not to be from a secular genre, modest use of instruments, less complicated music
  125. Pope Marcellus Mass
    • Rumored to be the musical piece that "saved polyphony" from the Counter Reformation, this mass was written by Palestrina in the mid-16th c. and was dedicated to Pope Marcellus
    • it is polyphonic
    • panconsonant
    • chordal
    • not imitative
    • dissonances are quickly resolved
    • easily understood text
    • 6 voices
    • homophonic in places
  126. King Henry VIII
    • 1509-1547 reign
    • devout Catholic
    • married Catherine of Aragon
    • Defended Catholic church against Martin Luther, but was excommunicated when he formed the Church of England in protest of his inability to get an annulment from Catherine. He was able to divorce her.
  127. Catherine of Aragon
    • widow of Henry VIII's brother, married Henry VIII
    • when he couldn't get an annulment, he formed the Church of England so he could divorce her.
  128. Book of Common Prayer
    • Defined structure of Church of England:
    • Missal = mass, Breviary = offices, Manual = occasionals such as baptism, wedding, Pontifical Services
    • Used during church services, esp Breviary
    • Old liturgy, Protestant principles
    • Church of England, published under Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer in mid-16th c.
  129. English anthems
    • 4 part
    • imitative
    • note/note
    • little word painting
    • clarity of text most important
    • no instruments
  130. Full anthem
    • "Verily, Verily I say Unto You" (late 16th c) by Tallis
    • homophonic
    • note/note ctrpt
    • 4 pt
    • not seamless
    • "Sing Joyfully Unto God" (early 17th c) by Byrd
    • 6 voices
    • seamless by overlapping voices
    • text not as clear
    • no instruments, but instrumetns are mentioned
    • (organ part is available)
  131. Verse anthem
    • Byrd
    • soloist/instrumental acc't alternates with choir
    • roots in consort songs
    • "Christ rising again"
  132. Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
    • by Byrd
    • full anthems: a capella
    • verse anthems: alt choir/instruments
    • Virginal = keyboard instrument that Queen Elizabeth played
  133. Mannerism
    • In art:
    • idealized forms - high Renaissance
    • distortion for emphasis
    • uses "quotations" from other artists
    • in music:
    • distortion of harmonies
    • wierd disonances
    • word painting
    • de Lasso (1532-1594)
  134. Sibylline Prophesies
    • de Lassus mid-16th c
    • Sibylls - 12 prophets who foretold 2nd coming
    • dissonances, harmonizations very unusual
    • "Cum essem parvulus" late 16th c
  135. High Renaissance characteristics
    • imitative polyphony
    • still modal
    • lots of consonance
    • not mannerist
    • paired voices (grouped)
    • 6 voices
    • word painting
    • triads at cadences
    • seamless polyphony
  136. consort music
    • instrumental
    • families of instruments: loud/soft
    • susato dances
    • paired dances pavane/galiard
  137. Le Nuove Musiche
    • Caccini -
    • collection of songs with basso continuo
    • demonstrates seconda prattica
    • early 17th c.
  138. sprezzatura di canto
    • "negligence of songs" - Caccini
    • mentioned in preface of Le Nuove Musiche as a type of speech-like singing
  139. trillo
    Italian word for "trill" - a vocal tremelo
  140. strophic variations
    • Italian vocal chamber music
    • early 18th c.
    • each stroph is varied; bass is ground bass
  141. arioso
    melodious passage in a recitative - Monteverdi - mid-17th c.
  142. motto aria
    • Baroque
    • Handel: Rodelinda Early 18th c.
    • begins with brief emphatic phrase from singer (the "motto"), preceding the opening orchestral ritornello. Normally the same phrase will follow the ritornello, marking the beginning of the aria.
  143. Cantata
    • Vocal and instrumental composition -
    • Baroque period
    • usually solo
  144. Toccata
    virtuosic music for solo keyboard instrument
  145. Romanesca
    16th-17th c. melodic/harmonic formula used for arias - singing poetry. Descending descant formula supported by standard chordal progression; bass moves by 4ths.
  146. Passaggi
    • Used in this, the plural form, it refers to a kind of ornamentation.
    • Also, a passage of music intended to display the performer's virtuosity
  147. Partita
    • Multi-movement genre, such as a set of variations or a suite.
    • Froberger: Libro secondo di toccatti...mid 17th c.
  148. chorale
    • text and melody of a hymn. Martin Luther: A Mighty Fortress Is Our God
    • simple language, vernacular, meant for congregational singing
  149. Chorale prelude/fantasia
    • Setting of a chorale melody - usu. organ
    • fantasia - can use the melody from a chorale as a c.f.
  150. paraphrase technique
    • late 16th/early 17th c.
    • use of c.f. in fragments as a structural device in a new polyphonic composition
  151. stylus fantasticus
    • Baroque
    • instrumental music
    • no rules; simply meant to show off
    • Kircher, mid-17th c. definition
  152. Abendmusik
    • type of concert in Marienkirche, Lubeck, 17th and 18th c.
    • organ recitals
    • entertainment for businessmen
  153. canzona
    • instrumental music
    • 16th-17th c. - dev. from Netherlandish chanson
  154. style brise
    • arpeggiated technique for string players
    • 17th c. French music usually
    • lute, viol, or keyboard
  155. Contilena motet
    Lyrical, florid top voice with slower moving lower voices. Ex. flos florum, Dufay, early 15th c.

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