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- for public worship; re-creation of the Last
- portions of
- the Mass performed on special occasions, such as Introit, Gradual, Alleluia,
- portions of
- the Mass performed for all occasions – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
book containing chants for mass and Office – late 19th c. – Abbey Solesmes
portion of the Proper
– strophic song of praise, non-Biblical text
A type of trope including text and music, which was added to the end of a pre-existing chant (sequence=to follow). ex: Jubilus (Balbalus) Alleluia, Mass for Easter Sunday. Double Versicle form: phrases: a b ccccc…ddddd…alleluia/amen
Canonical Hours – for clergy only, performed at times of day that correspond to the events of crucifixion. Matins (2am), Lauds (pre-sunrise), Prime (6 am), Terce (9 am), Sext (noon), Nones (3 pm), Vespers (evening), Compline (bedtime)
singing of psalms
centerpiece of Divine Office; admonitions
text that frames a psalm (antiphon-psalm-antiphon) – ex. Mass for Easter Sunday, Introit
formulas for recitations of psalms; patterns for singing: Imitium, Tenor (recitation), Mediation (cadence in mid-phrase) , Tenor, termination
two half-choirs (not necessarily antiphons; this term just meant alternating ensembles)
solo plus choir
Everyone sings the same thing at the same time
Music of the church – purpose was to praise God, unmetered, not notated (synonymous with Gregorian chant/chant)
one note per syllable
a few notes per syllable
many notes per syllable
- classification of antiphonal melodic material (designed to classify Antiphon so that it ends in the place that leads into psalm text correctly.)
- 1. Dorian 2. Hypodorian 3. Phrygian 4 . Hypophrygian 5. Lydian 6. Hypolydian 7. Mixolydian 8. Hypomixolydian Odds are authentic, evens are plagal.
the last note of the chant, also the most important note
The range of the mode
Second most important note in a chant (synonyms)
- The life of monks and nuns – service to religion is the way of life. St. Benedict established patterns for monastic life, including religious observances, service jobs for community (gardening, making wine, etc), vows such as poverty,chastity, etc., obedience, stability, conversio (vows). Monasteries propagated Christianity, strengthened the role of the Pope, and were places for learning.
- Psalms were very important as life lessons.
material added to an existing chant – could be added words in an existing melisma, or added words and music (ex. Sequence)
religious (usually Biblical text), staged, has characters, teaches a moral lesson, is sung.
Morality play (play of virtues)
"OrdoVirtutum” von Bingen mid-12th c. Drama about the Christian life for people who couldn’t read or understand the mass. Morals were often personified, characters such as evil and man. Concepts of sin, repentance, and forgiveness were taught this way.
Hildegard von Bingen
Started a monastery, grew up in church. Had visions from the time she was three years old. Wrote morality plays, such as “Ordo Virtutum”
Town in Germany known for its Passion Play performed every 10 years in gratitude to God for being spared from the plague
French secular musicians/jugglers/dancers – vagabond, lower class, variety show, social outcasts (S. France, 9th, 10th c)
students in training to become priests or clergy (11th- 12th c.)
song book of goliard songs – secular subjects, Latin rather than vernacular
S. France, 12th c. not traveling, upper crust, “courtly love” knights, chivalry, unrequited love, duty, honor above all else
N. France equivalent to troubadour – wrote in langue d’oie dialogue (female: troubaritz, ex. Beatriz de Dia)
unrequited love, subject of minnesinger
German speaking lands, singers of courtly love songs (unrequited love). Similar to troubadour, upper class, (12-14th c.) frauenlied (women’s song of longing), tagelied (day song), alba (song of lovers parting at dawn), and Kruzlied (cross songs about the Crusades). Lots of pictures and poetry has survived. Bar form AAB. A section – stolen; B section - abgesang
Walther von der Vogelweide
Southern Germany. Trained in a union-like system. 14th-17th c.Secular, learned songs, poetry, certain tunes and strict rules of singing. Performed a Masterpiece after completing apprenticeship (final exam). Middle class – religious (NOT courtly love) Song contests each month
early 16th c. German poet. Wrote “silverweise” (p.11, anth) Leading Meistersinger of Nuremburg school. 4000 master songs, 2000 fables, tales in verse (schwanke), morality plays, farces. Many later adapted as Protestant hymn tunes. Principal character in Wagner’s Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg. AAB songs
two verses and a second part. Text is different for both verses
a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance, polyphonic embellishment to a solo section of plainchant, during the solo parts of antiphonal sections, starts with the preexisting material and adds to it.
Organum with another part that is sung at a set interval above the original melody, usually a 5th apart, not written out
A variety of perfect intervals are used, not parallel the whole time
anywhere from 2 to 6 notes in the organal voice sung over a single sustained note in the tenor
The original notated melody, tenor, chant, written in black
unnotated second melody, added voice
long unmeasured notes in the CF, fixed song – pre-existing tune used as the structural voice in a new composition
Technique of using the rhythmic modes
little section of plainchant in modal rhythm
Notre Dame School
Leonin and Perotin, 12th c. Paris, melismatic organum, added new material: Organum purum and discant style
Wrote Magnus liber organi (Big Book of Organum) – early 13th c.
Magnus liber organi
“Big Book of Organum” – Anon. IV, early 13th c. contains common chants, subst/disc clausula, to be used whenever needed. His treatise introduced us to Leonin and Perotin.
original chant melody, used as structural base for other compositions, usually in the tenor voice
Discant clausula with added text, sacred or secular, Latin or French, early 13th c.
Another line added above to make it three voice polyphony, each voice with its own text, horizontal motion, no interaction except for perfect intervals at the cadence, short phrases so the voices stay together, no bar lines or meter, non-imitative.
added voices of the motet; the tenor was the original voice
added by the performers but not notated, for example, making a note sharp or flat to avoid tritones
the shape, size, and color of the notation makes a difference in the various note values. Symbol specific notation and proportional note values. Franco of Cologne wrote in the mid 14th c. Ars cantus mensurabilis – The Art of Measured Song. Tempus and prolation – know how to figure this out!!!!
An era of new developments and a specific treatise. Isorhythmic motets come out of this period. First ½ of 14th c.
Philippe de Vitry
Acomposer and theorist, he wrote the treatise Ars nova. Music is divided into dupole or triple configurations, mensuration signs created, dots begin to be added to notes, meter signs. Vitry invented the minim and codified other note values.His notation makes more complicated rhythms possible.
Comes out of Ars Nova – 14th c. refers specifically to the way composers treat pitch and rhythm in the tenor. Pitch – color; rhythm – talea. It was a proportional system where the Color and Talea were used like a formula and plugged in together until they ended at the same time.
Roman de Fauvel
Political satire of the Ars nova, many of these pieces had music by de Vitry and text by de Bus.They made fun of the people of the court and corruption. Fauvel was a donkey. Name was an acronym
Text in Medeival French, mostly monophonic, newly composed, fit into pre-existing structure:
formes fixes: AAB (bar form) based on poetic form: ab ab cc dD
formes fixes: shares poetic form: AB aA ab AB
formes fixes: shares poetic form: AbbaA
- musical puzzle
- imitative polyphony
refined, complex, and demanding music of Ars Subtilior
Decorated scores, written in shape of heart or harp, for example. Difficult style of music written in reaction to Pope John XXII taking away florid styles and polyphony.
Marigals, ballatas, Caccia; the Italian version of Ars nova, during the 1300’s Pope John XXII eliminated complexity in music, resulted in secular music that went in a new direction
Big book of scores, madrigals, highly illuminated scores, lots of pieces by Landini, 12 composers and 354 pieces of music
- "English face"
- Quam pulchra es - Dunstable
- parallel first inversion chords
- one voice was improvised
- European music of 15th c. - ex. Quam pulchra es,
- another ex.: Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys - Dufay
Uses repetitions of the talea (rhythm) and color (pitches), which, if uneven in length, are repeated until they end together.
no fixed place in the mass or Office, usually Latin, liturgical
Motet-Renaissance vs. Medieval-examples in Flos florum
- Some triadic chordal sonorities
- instrumental interlude
- cadences are triadic
- same text in all voices
- Rhythmic stratification
- 5th is emphasized at cadence
- non-imitative polyphony
Cantilena motet - florid, lyrical top voice over slower moving voices.
- mix of chant and polyphony found in some hymns
- ex. Conditor, alme siderum (Dufay)
- Strophic song of praise
- ex. Conditor, alme siderum - Dufay
- written for Mass
Cantus Firmus Mass
pre-existing tune is used as a structural element in a newly composed polyphonic mass
points of imitation
using a fragment of a monophonic tune that appears in all voices as a point of departure. Especially used in papraphrase masses. Imitation is used as a structural device in these masses. Imitation often occurs in pairs. Ex. Missa Pange Lingua (pange lingua was the original tune, fragmented - each fragment used as a point of imitation)
uses a pre-existing monophonic model in fragments as points of imitation. Each point of imitation is used in all voices.
- Uses a pre-existing polyphonic model as a structural device for the Mass. This cantus firmus is found in all parts.
- Ex. des Prez - Missa fortuna desperata based on Busnios's Fortuna desperata (Italian chanson)
- addition of texts to pre-existing material: Ex: changing texts of drinking songs to make religious songs.
- Ex. des Prez - Missa fortuna desperata - 3 voice original made 4 voices.
- early 15th c. - designed dome for Santa Maria del Fiore, cathedral in Florence
- Nuper Rosarum Flores was comissioned for the opening of this cathedral
Soggetto cavado delle vocale
- "Subject carved out of the vowels"
- refers to the process of taking only the vowels of a name and using them as a basis for a solfege-inspired c.f. Missa Freole dux Ferrariae by des Prez
a polyphonic canon that is seperated by changes in proportion or mensuration, ex. missa Prolationem (Ockeghem) - top two voices have a mensuration canon going on (altus has one beat more than soprano); bottom two voices also have a mensuration canon (tempus changes) - 4 different mensuration signs are included
Missa Cuiusvis Toni
- mass without a mode
- can be performed in any of the authentic modes
- 1501 creator of printing press with movable type.
- Published Odhecaton A
- Process included 3 steps: staff, notes, text
First book of printed polyphonic music
- French creator of printing press with one block that has staff notes and words on it. This type of printing press lasted through 16th c. till 1750.
- dance music, lute music, part books, instrumental music
- regular rhythm/meter
- lutes were popular
- grouped in pairs such as pavane/galiard, then into suites/partitas
- songs that include fauxbourdon
- common in first half of Renaissance in Burgundy and lowlands
- songs in French
- Formes fixes
- ex. Adieu, ces bons vins de Lannoys (Dufay)
- 3 parts - melody + accompaniment
- discant tenor techniques
- 1st 1/2 of 15th c.
- Mardi Gras type songs
- popular in quattrocento in Italy (1400's)
- Lorenzo d'Medici loved them
- short, homophonic
- 3-voice textures
- about life and sex
- composer of frottola 2nd half of 15th c
- religious fanatic and friar
Bonfire of the Vanities
- Savonarola burned "earthly things" in the center of Florence
- end of 15th c.
- Pope and deMedici family burned him
- secular songs of the 1400's
- religious themes
- contrafactum - used pop songs and changed the words
- noble in Mantua
- sponsored Tromboncini and Cara
- patron of music and arts
- loved frottola
- secular Italian vocal genres of late 15th, early 16th c.
- texture is chordal
- texts are often lighthearted, comic, or ironic
- at least 3 voices
- ex. des Prez's "El Grillo"
- and Cara's "Hor venduto ho la speranza
Early Italian madrigal
- early 16th c
- Songs for secular entertainment
- early composers were Burgundian (Arcadelt, de Rore)
- cultivated in Florence
- little imitation
- cardinal at Vatican
- believed that madrigal should use fine poetry in Tuscan dialect (Dante, Petrarch, poets)
- word/text painting
- Arcadelt, "Il bianco e dolce cigno", early 16th c.
- de Rore - one of the first to use:
- unexpected dissonances
- meaning of text more important than harmonies
- very consonant, strict rules
- Artusi - theorist who criticized Monteverdi
syn. to madrigalism
Late Italian madrigal
- late 16th c.
- higher level of poetry
- thicker texture
- more seamless
- extreme madrigal: Gesualdo - Morro Lasso early 17th c
- late 16th c
- "Now is the month of Maying"
- lighter, sillier, double meanings
- more pastoral
- word painting still important
- fa la la refrain
- not based on It. madrigal
Queen Elizabeth I
- reign 1558-1603
- well educated, multi lingual
- played lute and harpsichord
- "virgin queen"
- Triumphs of Oriana - Morley - homage to the queen: all madrigals in this book must end with "Thus sang the nymphs/shepherds of Diana; long live fair Oriana"
- Published 1st book of English madrigals in homage to Queen Elizabeth:
- The Triumphs of Oriana
- all madrigals in this book must end with "Thus sang the nyphs/shepherds of Diana: Long live fair Oriana"
- (Other side of the Alps)
- late 16th c.
- book of 33 Italian madrigals translated into English
- more serious madrigals
characteristic of late Italian madrigals - no discernible sections.
Three Ladies of Ferrara
- Famous for their virtuosic singing
- Daily concerts for the Duke of Ferrara
- T'amo mia vita (late 16th c.) - written for the group by Luzzaschi
- also: Musica secreta
- not intended for all audiences, only elite connoisseurs
- Cacchini - composer
- early 17th c
- As Vesta was from Latmos Hill Descending
- From The Triumphs of Oriana
- Goddess - Vesta - refers to Queen Elizabeth
composed for more advanced singers such as the three ladies of ferrara
- less formes fixes
- not all were composed in Paris
- all were in French
- 4 voices
- lighter, fast, no regular form
- duple meter
- homophonic, occasional pts of imit., sectional
- rhythm = long short short
- de Sermisy - "Tant que vivray" early 16th c.
- Janequin - "Chant des Oyseaulx" - song of the birds - mid-16th c.
- Martin Luther voiced his concerns with Catholic Church - 95 theses, it was printed and many followers emerged. Catholic church demands his repentance, he refuses
- "Priesthood of all believers"
- faith should be informed
- Lutherans still had Mass
- Music is meant for congregational singing, didactic use
- formerly a devout Catholic priest
- 95 theses
- translated Bible into German
- wrote music for congregation (Chorales - monophonic, bar form, German)
- felt that as long as music is being used in service to God, we have dominion
- Martin Luther's grievances with the Catholic church
- Nailed to University Cathedral door in 1517
- Printed and widely distributed
Catholic fund raiser - "Get out of jail free"
- 16th c. monophonic in bar form AAB
- short phrases
- octave range
- "Tenor song"
- simple tunes
- 4 parts
- cf in tenor or soprano
- 1st genre of song + accompaniment
- tabulature notation
- "Come, Heavy Sleep" by dowland late 16th c
- "Flow, My Tears" by dowland
- corresponds to Council of Trent mid-15th c.
- Catholic response to Reformation
- Catholics are losing money bc of so many people converting to Protestantism
- some reforms, no more indulgences
- music's role was addressed:
- no secular genres, modest use of instr's, less complicated music
Council of Trent
- Catholics met to discuss how to respond to Protestant Reformation
- Counter Reformation included some reform, no more indulgences
- music was not to be from a secular genre, modest use of instruments, less complicated music
Pope Marcellus Mass
- Rumored to be the musical piece that "saved polyphony" from the Counter Reformation, this mass was written by Palestrina in the mid-16th c. and was dedicated to Pope Marcellus
- it is polyphonic
- not imitative
- dissonances are quickly resolved
- easily understood text
- 6 voices
- homophonic in places
King Henry VIII
- 1509-1547 reign
- devout Catholic
- married Catherine of Aragon
- Defended Catholic church against Martin Luther, but was excommunicated when he formed the Church of England in protest of his inability to get an annulment from Catherine. He was able to divorce her.
Catherine of Aragon
- widow of Henry VIII's brother, married Henry VIII
- when he couldn't get an annulment, he formed the Church of England so he could divorce her.
Book of Common Prayer
- Defined structure of Church of England:
- Missal = mass, Breviary = offices, Manual = occasionals such as baptism, wedding, Pontifical Services
- Used during church services, esp Breviary
- Old liturgy, Protestant principles
- Church of England, published under Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer in mid-16th c.
- 4 part
- little word painting
- clarity of text most important
- no instruments
- "Verily, Verily I say Unto You" (late 16th c) by Tallis
- note/note ctrpt
- 4 pt
- not seamless
- "Sing Joyfully Unto God" (early 17th c) by Byrd
- 6 voices
- seamless by overlapping voices
- text not as clear
- no instruments, but instrumetns are mentioned
- (organ part is available)
- soloist/instrumental acc't alternates with choir
- roots in consort songs
- "Christ rising again"
Fitzwilliam Virginal Book
- by Byrd
- full anthems: a capella
- verse anthems: alt choir/instruments
- Virginal = keyboard instrument that Queen Elizabeth played
- In art:
- idealized forms - high Renaissance
- distortion for emphasis
- uses "quotations" from other artists
- in music:
- distortion of harmonies
- wierd disonances
- word painting
- de Lasso (1532-1594)
- de Lassus mid-16th c
- Sibylls - 12 prophets who foretold 2nd coming
- dissonances, harmonizations very unusual
- "Cum essem parvulus" late 16th c
High Renaissance characteristics
- imitative polyphony
- still modal
- lots of consonance
- not mannerist
- paired voices (grouped)
- 6 voices
- word painting
- triads at cadences
- seamless polyphony
- families of instruments: loud/soft
- susato dances
- paired dances pavane/galiard
Le Nuove Musiche
- Caccini -
- collection of songs with basso continuo
- demonstrates seconda prattica
- early 17th c.
sprezzatura di canto
- "negligence of songs" - Caccini
- mentioned in preface of Le Nuove Musiche as a type of speech-like singing
Italian word for "trill" - a vocal tremelo
- Italian vocal chamber music
- early 18th c.
- each stroph is varied; bass is ground bass
melodious passage in a recitative - Monteverdi - mid-17th c.
- Handel: Rodelinda Early 18th c.
- begins with brief emphatic phrase from singer (the "motto"), preceding the opening orchestral ritornello. Normally the same phrase will follow the ritornello, marking the beginning of the aria.
- Vocal and instrumental composition -
- Baroque period
- usually solo
virtuosic music for solo keyboard instrument
16th-17th c. melodic/harmonic formula used for arias - singing poetry. Descending descant formula supported by standard chordal progression; bass moves by 4ths.
- Used in this, the plural form, it refers to a kind of ornamentation.
- Also, a passage of music intended to display the performer's virtuosity
- Multi-movement genre, such as a set of variations or a suite.
- Froberger: Libro secondo di toccatti...mid 17th c.
- text and melody of a hymn. Martin Luther: A Mighty Fortress Is Our God
- simple language, vernacular, meant for congregational singing
- Setting of a chorale melody - usu. organ
- fantasia - can use the melody from a chorale as a c.f.
- late 16th/early 17th c.
- use of c.f. in fragments as a structural device in a new polyphonic composition
- instrumental music
- no rules; simply meant to show off
- Kircher, mid-17th c. definition
- type of concert in Marienkirche, Lubeck, 17th and 18th c.
- organ recitals
- entertainment for businessmen
- instrumental music
- 16th-17th c. - dev. from Netherlandish chanson
- arpeggiated technique for string players
- 17th c. French music usually
- lute, viol, or keyboard
Lyrical, florid top voice with slower moving lower voices. Ex. flos florum, Dufay, early 15th c.