flashcards chapter 4.txt
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flashcards chapter 4.txt
psychology chapter 4
what are the four classical conditioning techiniques?
Unconditioned sensation, considitioned sensetation, unconditioned response, conditioned response
what is classical conditioning?
aquiring a new response to a previouisly neutral stimulus that realbly signals the arrival of unconditioned stimulus
what is extinction process?
the diminishing of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response my not be totaly lost during extinction
what is operant conditioning?
learning to associate behaviors with their consenquences. Behaviors the are reinforced will be strengthened and behabiors that are puniched will be weakened
what is shaping?
training a human or animal to make an operant response by reinforcing successive approximation of desired response.
what is motivation?
set of internal and external factors that energise our behavior and direct it toward goals.
what is the drive reduction theory?
theory of motivation that our behavior is motivated to reduce drives created by unsatisfyed bodily needs to return the body too balanced internal state
what is arousal theory?
theory of motivation proposes behaviors motivated to aintain an optimal level of physiological arousal
what is extrinsic motivation?
the desire to perform a behavior for external reinforcement
what is inbrassic motivation?
desire to perform a behavior for our own sake
what is the overjustification effect?>
decrease in intrinsically motivated behavior after the behavior is extrinsically reinforced and then reinforcement discontinued
what is discrimitative stimulus?
stimulus that has to be present for the operant response to be reinforced or punished
what is stimulus discimination
learning to give the operant response only in presence of the disriminative stimuli
what is a reinforcer?
stimulus that increases the probability of a prior response
what is a punisher?
stimulus that decreases the probability of prior response
what is reinforcement
process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentations of a reinforcer following the response
what is punishement?
process by which the probability of a response is decreased by the presentation of a punisher following the response.
what is appetitive stimulus?
stimulus that the animal or huan find pleasant
what is abbresive stimulus?
stimulus find unpleasent
what are the 5 processes in operant conditioning?
acquisition, ixtiction, spontaneous recovery, generelazication and discrimination
what is acqusition?
refers to the strenghtening of the reinforced operant response
what is sponteneous recovery?
temporary recovery of the operant response following a break during extinciton training
what is observational learning?
learning by observing others and imitating their behavior