Positioning Patients

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Author:
Atljavy8
ID:
93267
Filename:
Positioning Patients
Updated:
2011-07-07 09:01:18
Tags:
Basic Health Profession Skills
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Description:
Positioning Patients
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  1. Horizontal Recumbent (Supine) position
    • * Used for examination or treatment of the front, or anterior, part of the body
    • * the patient lies flat on the back with the legs slightly apart
    • * one small pillow is allowed under the head
    • * the arms are flat at the side of the body
    • * the drape is placed over the patient but left loose on all sides to facilitate examination or treatment
  2. Prone position
    • * used for examination or treatment of the back or spine
    • * the patient lies on the abdomen and turns the head to either side. A small pillow may be placed under the head.
    • * the arms may be flexed at the elbows and positioned on either side of the head
    • * one sheet or drape is placed over the patient but left loose on all sides of facilitate examination or treatment
  3. Sims' (Left Lateral) position
    • * used for simple rectal and sigmoidoscopic examinations, enemas, rectal temperatures, and rectal treatments
    • * the patient lies on the left side
    • * the left arm is extended behind the back.
    • * the head is turned to the side. A pillow may be used.
    • * the right arm is in front of the patient, and the elbow is bent
    • * the left leg is bent, or flexed, slightly
    • * the right leg is bent sharply at the knee and brought up to the abdomen
  4. Knee-chest Position
    • * used for rectal examinations, usually a sigmoidoscopic examination
    • * the patient rests the body weight on the knees and chest
    • * the arms are flexed slightly at the elbows and are extended above the head
    • * the knees are slightly separated, and the thighs are at the right angles to the table
    • * draping can be done with one large sheet or two small sheets that meet at the rectal area. A large sheet with a hole at the rectal area can also be used. Sheets hang loose with no tucks.
  5. Fowler's position
    • * used to facilitate breathing, relieve distress, encourage drainage, and examine the head, neck, and chest.
    • * the patient lies on the back
    • * the head is elevated to one to three main positisons:
    • (1) Low Fowler's: the head is elevated to a 25o angle.
    • (2) Semi-Fowler's: the head is elevated to a 45o angle
    • (3) High Fowler's: the head is elevated to a 90o angle
    • * the knees are slightly bent and are sometimes supported on a pillow.
    • * one sheet is used to drape the patient. The sheet is left hanging loose.
  6. Lithotomy position
    • * used for vaginal examinations, pap tests, urinary catherization, cystoscopic examinations, and surgery of the pelvic area.
    • * the patient is positioned on the back
    • * the knees are separated and flexed, and the feet are placed in stirrups
    • * the arms rest at the sides
    • * the buttocks are at the lower end of the table
    • * draping is done with one large sheet placed over the body in a diamond shape. One corner is at the upper chest, and one corner hangs loose between legs. Each of the other two corners is wrapped around a foot.
  7. Dorsal Recumbent position
    • * similar to the lithotomy position, but the patient is in bed or on a table without stirrups
    • * the feet are separated but flat on the bed
    • * the knees are bent
    • * draping and other points are the same as for the lithotomy position
  8. Trendelenburg
    • * increases circulation of blood to the head and brain can be used for circulatory shock. The entire bed or table is elevated at the feet. The patient lies in the horizontal recumbent position, with the head lower than the feet
    • * the surgical Trendeleburg position can be used for surgery on pelvic organs and for pelvic treatments. The patient is flat on the back. The table is lowered at a 45o angle to lower the head, and the feet and lower legs are inclined downward.
    • * straps are frequently used to hold the patient in position.
    • * Note: draping for the Trendelenburg position depends on the treatment being performed; usually, one large sheet is used and left hanging loose. For surgical procedures, the patient is draped with a sheet that has a hole to expose the surgical areas.
  9. Jackknife (Proctology) position
    • * used mainly for rectal surgery or examinations, and for back surgery or treatments
    • * the patient is in the prone position
    • * the table is elevated at the center so that the rectal area is at a higher elevation. A special surgical table is required for this position.
    • * the head and chest point downward. The feet and legs hang down at the opposite end of the table.
    • * the patient must be supported to prevent injury. Straps are used to hold the patient in position.
    • * draping is done with a surgical sheet that has a hole to expose the surgical or treatment area. Two small sheets that meet at the surgical or treatment area can also be used.

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