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Describe the world-changing scientific contributions of Leeuwenhoek
- Began making and using simple microscopes
- Often made a new microscope for each specimen
- Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi, algae, and single-celled protozoa, "animalcules"
Define microbes in the words of Leeuwenhoek
"Beasties", or "animalcules", no larger that 1/100 of the size of a grain of sand
List 6 groups of microorganisms
Fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, archaea, small animals
Explain why protozoa, algae and non-microbial parasitic worms are studied in microbiology
Because many of them cause diseases that were studied by early microbiologists; diseases are often caused by microscopic eggs and immature stages in the body
Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms
- Prokaryotic organisms lack nuclei
- Eukaryotic organisms contain nuclei composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane
List and answer four question that propelled research into what is called "the Golden Age of Microbiology"
- Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible?
- What causes fermentation?
- What causes disease?
- How can we prevent infection and disease?
Identify the scientists who argued in favor of spontaneous generation
Compare and contrast the investigations of Redi, Needham, Spallanzani, and Pasteur to disprove spontaneous generation
- Redi-meat and flies; tried to disprove spontaneous generation
- Needham-beef gravy and plants; tried to prove that microbes could generate spontaneously
- Spallanzani-reworked Needham's experiments to prove them faulty
- Pasteur-swan-necked flasks; disproved spontaneous generation
List four steps in the scientific method of investigation
- A group of observations leads a scientist to ask questions about some observed/inferred phenomenon
- The scientist generates one or more hypotheses
- The scientist designs and conducts an experiment to test the hypothesis
- Based on observed results and data, scentist either accepts, rejects, or modifies hypothesis
Discuss the significance of Pasteur's fermentation experiments to our world today
- Spoiled wine threatened livelihood of vintners, compelling them to fund research into how to promote production of alcohol but prevent spoilage by acid during fermentation
- Some believed air caused fermentation reactions, while others insisted living organisms caused fermentation
- This debate also linked to debate of spontaneous generation
Explain why Pasteur is known as the Father of Microbiology
Because of his many, varied, and significant accomplishments in working with microbes
Identify the scientist whose experiments led to the field of biochemistry and the study of metabolism
List at least 7 contributions made by Koch to the field of microbiology
List the 4 steps that must be taken to prove the cause of a contagious disease
Describe the contribution of Gram to the field of microbiology
Identify 4 health care practitioners who did pioneering research in the areas of public health microbiology and epidemiology
Name 2 scientists whose work with caccines began the field of immunology
Describe the quest for a "magic bullet"
Name the fastest-growing scientific disciplines in microbiology today