Urinary Development S2M2

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Urinary Development S2M2
2011-08-14 17:49:22
Ross S2M2

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  1. Development of the Urinary system & Genital system comes from what embryological layer
    Intermediate mesoderm
  2. What are the three kidney systems
    • Pronephric
    • Mesonephric
    • Metanephric
  3. When and where does the Pronephros system appear
    • 4th week
    • In the cervical and upper thoracic region
  4. What does the Pronephros develop into
    Vestigial excretory units (nephrotomes) but they regress quickly
  5. When and where does the Mesonephros system appear
    • Early in the 4th week
    • Spans from upper thoracic to the upper lumbar region (L3)
  6. What happens by the second month to the Urinary structures that have developed
    • The majority of the mesonephros and mesonephric ducts disappear
    • In the male, part of the caudal tubules and mesonephric ducts remain and participate in the genital system
  7. What is another name for the Mesonephric duct
    Wolffian duct
  8. When do the kidneys develop, and from what
    5th week from Metanephros system appearing as excretory units
  9. The nephrons from the Bowmans capsule to the Distal convoluted tubule develop from
    Metanephros (3rd kidney system)
  10. What is the collecting tubules to the ureter derived from
    Mesonephric (Ureteric bud)
  11. Ureteric bud
    Outgrowth of mesonephric duct, primordium of the collecting tubule and Ureter
  12. The Utereric bud appears when
    Early in the 5th week
  13. The Ureteric bud continues to bifurcate until when, making what
    32nd week, producing 1-3 million collecting tubules
  14. What happens at the tip of each collecting duct
    They induce the development of Metanephric tissue caps
  15. What happens to the continual lengthening of the Metanephric tissue caps
    Proximal convoluted and Distal convoluted tubules appear
  16. The Metanephric mesoderm develops eventually into what structures
    • Bowmans capsule
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • Distal convoluted tubule
    • Loop of Henle
  17. What structures does the Mesonephric duct (Ureteric bud develop into
    • Collecting system
    • - Collecting tubule
    • - Collecting Duct
    • - Minor Calyces
    • - Major Calyces
    • - Renal pelvis
    • - Ureter
  18. Urine passes into the amniotic cavity beginning when
    12th week
  19. During the fetal life, the kidneys are not responsible for
    Excretion of waste
  20. What is WT1
    This is a precursur gene expressed on chromosome 11 that codes for a transcription factor that makes the metanephric mesenchyme responsive to induction by the Ureteric bud
  21. Wilms tumor
    WT1 mutation causing a rapidly forming malignancy
  22. WAGR syndrome
    • Wilms tumor
    • Aniridia (no iris)
    • Genitourinary abnormalities
    • Retardation (mental)
  23. Multicystic dysplastic kidney
    Nephrons fail to develop, collecting ducts never form
  24. Renal agenesis
    • Absent kidney
    • The ureteric bud fails to contact and induce the metanephric mesenchyme
  25. Bilateral Renal agenesis
    • Absence of both kidneys
    • Characteristic facial appearance and oligohydramnios
  26. Potters sequence
    • Anuria
    • Oligohydramnios (decreased amniotic fluid level)
    • Hypoplastic lungs
    • Lack of kidney
  27. Congenital polycystic kidney (CPK)
    • Numerous cysts on kidney
    • Autosomal recessive - progressive, cysts form from collecting ducts, infancy or child renal failure
    • Autosomal dominant - less progressive, cysts form from all segments, adult renal failure
  28. What is an classic finding of a child with Potters sequence
    Prominent infraorbital folds
  29. Ectopic ureter
    Development of two ureteric buds, one in a normal position and one abnormal communicating with the bladder, urethra, or vagina
  30. When is the final position of the kidneys reached
    They ascend to the lumbar region by the 9th week
  31. What prevents the ascension of a horseshoe kidney
    Inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)
  32. What happens to the cloaca during weeks 4-7
    It is divided into rectoanal canal and the primitive urogenital sinus
  33. The mesonephric duct originally opens up into the
    Anterior part of the cloaca
  34. How does the Ureteric bud arise above the mesonephric bud to connect into the bladder forming the ureters
    It is drug up by the ascent of the kidneys
  35. The prostate gland (men), and urethral glands (female) develop how
    End of the third month from an outgrowth of epithelium from the urethra
  36. What does the mesonephric duct become in males
    Ductus deferens and seminal vesicle
  37. The Allantois becomes
    Urachus (mediam umbilical ligament)
  38. The majority of the bladder is derived from
    Primitive urogenital sinus (Endoderm)
  39. The trigone portion of the bladder develops from
    Mesonephros (intermediate mesoderm)
  40. Urachal fistula
    Persistent allantois having urine leak from the belly button
  41. Exstrophy of bladder
    Ventral body wall defect exposing the inside of the posterior bladder wall
  42. Exstrophy of cloaca
    • Migration of mesoderm to midline is inhibited
    • More severe then exstrophy of bladder