micro exam 3 hn rview

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micro exam 3 hn rview
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micro exam 3 hn rview
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  1. Berjinski
    tobacco mosaic virus passes through a porcelain filter
  2. D’hellre
    devised method for enumerating viruses
  3. Characteristics of a virus
    Obligate intracellular parasites, acellular consist of one or more DNA or RNA molecule (not both), enclosed in a coat of protein, and sometimes in other more complex layers. Naked (no envelope) or enveloped
  4. Differentiations based on nucleic acid of viruses
    RNA or DNA – naked or enveloped
  5. animal viruses are cultivated in
    suitable animals, embryonated eggs, tissue cultures
  6. plaque assay
    Determining the viability of a viral preperation
  7. Size of virus
    10-400 nm in diameter
  8. capsid
    large structure protein coat of a virus
  9. function of the viral protein coat
    protect the viral genetic material and aid in the transfer of the viral genetic material between host cells
  10. viral envelopes composed of
    proteins, lipids and carbs
  11. characteristics of viral envelopes
    The proteins in the envelop are virus specific, and its lipids and carbs are derived from the host cell, large macromolecular structures
  12. viron
    complete virus particle
  13. Differential Centrifugation
    centrifugation of a suspension at various speeds in order to separate particles of various sizes
  14. Plus strand RNA
    have RNA with the same sequence as the viral mRNA
  15. Negative strand RNA
    have RNA which is complementary to viral mRNA
  16. Density Gradient Centrifugation
    particle will come to rest when the density of the surrounding medium is equal to the density of the particles even if the centrifugation is continued longer
  17. self-assembly
    cell structures form spontaneously from macromolecules without the aid of special enzyme or factors
  18. classifications of Animal viruses
    by Morphology, genome structure, genetic relatedness, replication strategy
  19. nucleocapsid
    the portion of a virus that consists of a viral nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat called the capsid
  20. latent virus infection
    virus stops reproducing and remains dormant for some time
  21. different mechanisms how viruses cause cancer
    virus carrying oncogene and inserting it into host genome, one is oncogene inside the cell
  22. type of virus causes liver cancer
    Hep B
  23. Characteristics of a viroid
    infectious agents composed only of RNA, cause plant disease, closed circular single stranded RNA, RNA does not serve as mRNA nor does it direct the synthesis of mRNA, have no protein capsids
  24. Diseases that prions produce
    scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow), Creutzfeld – Jakob disease, kuru
  25. oncogene
    genes whose expression or abnormal expression causes cancer
  26. Glycoprotein
    the most common type of molecule that of an animal virus for interacting with the host cell receptors
  27. adult T cell leukemia caused by
    retroviruses
  28. symbiosis
    one organism spends a portion of its life associated with another organism of a different species
  29. commensalism
    one organism benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed (eats at the same table) eg. nitrification
  30. mutualism
    some reciprocal benefit to both partners in the relationship with some degree of obligation. Partners will not survive separated in many cases. Mutualist dependant on host
  31. propionobacterium is associated
    with the oil glands of the skin
  32. The microbiota of the skin is most likely found
    in association with oil and sweat glands
  33. the microflora of the skin is kept
    a slight acidic pH, high concentration of NaCl, low moisture
  34. nucleocapsid
    the portion of a virus that consists of a viral nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat called the capsid
  35. hemoagglutination
    assay determines highest dilution of a virus that causes red blood cells to clump together in the presence of a viral suspension
  36. protomer
    individual subunit of a viral capsid (protein)

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