psychology add study.txt

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psychology add study.txt
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  1. Although earlier philosophers made important contributions ____________ believed in more than the souls or mind of the person, and interested in the function of the human body as an integral part of psychology. philosopher (1596-1650) who envisioned an elaborate mechanical scheme for mind/body operations.
    Rene DesCartes
  2. __________ (1632-1704) was an Englishman who brought philosophy to the threshold of psychology. founder of British empiricism. Locke summed up the Enlightenment in his belief in the middle class and its right to freedom of conscience and right to property, in his faith in science, and in his confidence in the goodness of humanity.
    John Locke
  3. British __________ focused on the content of the mind and claimed that it is acquired through experience. we are each born into this world with our minds empty, essentially like blank slates.
    Empiricism
  4. _____, 1832-1920, German physiologist and psychologist. taught at Leipzig, where he founded the first laboratory for experimental psychology. Wundt stressed the use of scientific methods in psychology, particularly through the use of introspection.taught at Leipzig, where he founded the first laboratory for experimental psychology. he stressed the use of scientific methods in psychology, particularly through the use of introspection.
    Wilhelm Wundt
  5. a theory that uses culturally interconnected signs to reconstruct systems of relationships rather than studying isolated, material things in themselves. found wide use from the early 20th century in a variety of fields, and is notably based upon the developments by Wilhelm Wundt�s psychology (advanced by Englishman Edward Titchener) of the structure of the mind.
    Structuralism
  6. Titchener was responsible for the refinement of _____________.
    Introspection. This is a method for studying consciousness first used in Wundt�s laboratory. Introspection literally means to look within.
  7. _____________ was an American philosopher at Harvard University who first opened the formal study of psychology within the classroom.performed research and demonstration within the classroom, he never truly founded a formal school of psychology, and preferred to be known as a philosopher, and not a psychologist.
    William James.
  8. Gestalt psychology developed from German psychologist __________________. The Gestalt school of psychology interprets phenomena as organized wholes rather than as aggregates of distinct parts, maintaining that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
    Max Wertheimer.
  9. ___________ is a school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B. Watson, who insisted that behavior is a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli. He rejected the exploration of mental processes as unscientific.
    Behaviourism.
  10. _______ epitomized the behaviorist approach more than any other psychologist. explains the behavior of humans and other animals in terms of the physiological responses of the organism to external stimuli. Like other behaviorists, he rejected unobservable phenomena of the sort that other forms of psychology, particularly psychoanalysis, had studied, concerning himself only with patterns of responses to rewards and stimuli.
    B.F. Skinner.
  11. __________ is a type of psychology that was in many ways a reaction to Behaviorism. leader was Carl Rogers (1902-1987). believe that the individual or self should be the central concern of psychology. It is their argument that we need to get the "person" back into psychology.
    Humanism.
  12. was a first cousin of Charles Darwin and was greatly influenced by him. was intrigued by the theory of evolution and by the possibilities of improving the human race. He reasoned that before one could improve the human condition, one first needed to measure and catalog the range of human abilities and aptitudes as they exist at the moment. He devised countless tests and measurements of individual differences
    Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
  13. ____________ (1857-1911), was a French psychologist. From 1894 he was director of the psychology laboratory at the Sorbonne. He is known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence
    Alfred Binet
  14. Sleep ________ are brief, but high amplitude bursts of electrical energy/activity that occur with regularity.
    Spindles. This occurs when a person is falling asleep, but is still easily awakened.
  15. ___ was discovered in the early 1950�s by Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky
    REM. REM stands for Rapid Eye Movement. Researchers noticed that as their subjects slept and began their second sleep cycle, their eyes darted back and forth under their closed eyelids. The most noteworthy aspect of their discovery is that when sleeping subjects are awakened during REM sleep, they report they are having significantly fewer dreams, and those they had were fragmented
  16. On some occasions, LSD (a hallucinogenic drug) gives rise to the experience of _______________ In this condition, a stimulus of one modality is perceived in a different modality, a crossing-over of sensory processing. Fr example, the individual may hear colored lights.
    synesthesia.
  17. The _____ of control is a personality construct referring to an individual's perception of events as determined internally by his/her own behavior vs. fate, luck, or external circumstances.
    Locus. For example, someone with an external locus of control often will not accept responsibility for his failure, and instead blame it on something else. A person with an internal locus of control is the opposite--blames everything on himself, even if it's not his fault.
  18. To get classical conditioning under way, a second stimulus, which is neutral, must be presented, and initially produces a minimal response or a response of no particular interest. This stimulus is known as the conditioned stimulus. This process is technically referred to as
    habituation.
  19. Skinner used the term operant to refer to behavior that an organism may use to operate on its ___________.
    Environment. Operants, or behaviors used to operate on an environment, are said to be controlled by their consequences-they will maintain or increase their rate if they are reinforced; they will decrease their rate if they are not reinforced or if they are punished.
  20. approach to learning is also cognitive in nature, but he added a decidedly social aspect to the process and for that reason it is often referred to as the social theory.The central idea of this theory is that learning takes place through the observation and the imitation of models. What makes social learning theory social is the notion that we often learn from others.
    Albert Bandura
  21. A _________ map is a mental representation of the learning situation or physical environment.
    Cognitive. The term cognitive map was originally coined by EC Tolman in 1948 to describe the way rats learn to map the environment of an experimental maze. Research indicated that rats learned not just a series of turns or responses, but also a general idea of the location of the reward relative to the starting position.
  22. An instinctive _____ is the term used by the Brelands to note that some behaviors are more difficult to condition than others.
    Drift. That is, in spite of conditioning efforts, an organism will "drift" toward doing something that comes naturally
  23. Another negative reinforcement in action is _________ conditioning. Here, an organism learns to avoid unpleasant and painful situations before it occurs.
    Avoidance. The major difference between avoidance and escape conditioning is the addition of a cue or signal that precedes the negative reinforcer. Responding appropriately to the signal allows the organism to prevent the painful, unpleasant situation before it occurs
  24. ______ proposed that many adult characteristics are produced by attempts to deal with basic anxiety.
    Karen Horney. Karen Horney is known for her Ten Neurotic Needs, which describe causes of anxiety and depression
  25. According to _________, emotions have two components: physical arousal and a cognitive label.
    Stanley Schachter. Schachter called this the two-factor theory. He believed that emotions were physiologically similar and therefore required conscious interpretation.
  26. One of the first references to a need to maintain a balanced state is found in the work of Walter Cannon. Cannon was concerned with our internal physiological reactions, and the term he used to describe a state of _______ or equilibrium within those reactions is homeostasis.
    Balance. Homeostasis is a state of balance among internal, physiological conditions
  27. A set point is a normal, optimum _____ of equilibrium or balance among physiological or psychological reactions.
    Level. Whenever something happens to upset one�s balance, the individual becomes motivated, and thus, driven to do whatever he/she can to return to the set point, or optimum, homeostatic level.
  28. Cognitive dissonance is a motivating __________ or tension caused by a lack of balance or consonance among one�s cognitions.
    Discomfort. People strive to have consistency among their attitudes, thoughts, and beliefs. Cognitive disonance is the state of mental discomfort that occurs when a person's attitudes, thoughts, or beliefs (cognitions) conflict.
  29. Another approach to motivation that relies on the notion of balance and ___________ is called the opponent-process theory.
    Equilibrium. The basic idea here is that one�s emotional reactions to affect-arousing stimuli naturally produce opposite emotional reactions in order to maintain a balanced level of affect or emotion. Remember, an "affect" refers to the feelings or mood associated with emotional responses, so an affect-arousing stimuli is a stimuli that produces a response in feeling or mood.
  30. ___________, also known as Adrenalin, is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is involved in emotional activity, mostly affecting heart activity.
    Epinephrine.
  31. The ______ system is a set of small structures located low in the brain. They are involved in motivational and emotional stress.
    Limbic. The limbic system is often associated with the emotional response to the threat of attack.
  32. Most of the data gathered on ___ differences in IQ scores have been gathered through a cross-sectional method.
    Age. Cross-sectional methods are IQ tests given at roughly the same time, to a large number of subjects of different ages. When this is done, the results seem to indicate that overall, global IQ peaks in the early 20s, stays rather stable for about 20 years, and then declines rather sharply.
  33. In a cross-sequential study, subjects who were ____ at the same time, but tested at different times are compared.
    Born. For example, a group of people born in 1947 could be tested in in 1997, a second group also born in 1947, could be tested in 2007. Differences between the two groups might be caused by aging.
  34. According to psychoanalytic theory, ___________ is an adaptive defense mechanism that permits the psychological energy associated with unconscious desires and impulses to be translated into socially accepted activities.
    Sublimation. Sublimation often involves translating this energy into creative activities which are socially acceptable, such as writing, composing, painting, etc.. An example is Beethoven, who was said to have sublimated his sexual and aggressive impulses, which were considered objectionable in that era, in the process of composing music.
  35. ___________ is known for his study in which he tested conformity, the extent to which social groups exert pressure on our perceptions, emotions, and behaviors.
    Solomon Asch. Asch�s experiment involved one study in which he displayed a line, and then asked which of three other lines were closest in length to that line. Everyone in the group except for one person was an accomplice, and was instructed to choose an incorrect answer. Many subjects went along with the group and chose the obviously wrong answer.
  36. __________Theory of Moral Development proposes 3 major levels of moral development, with two sub-stages for each level.
    • Three. The result is six stages of moral development. Kohlberg�s classification can be outlined in the following manner:
    • Kohlberg�s
  37. _______________ is an interactionist position that suggests that psychological characteristics are the result of neither Heredity nor the environment working alone.
    The epigenetic model. It suggests that organisms develop through the interaction of one�s genetic programming and one�s experiences in the environment. At most, our nature sets limits to what our nurture may provide through development.
  38. The bundle of fibers that links the two hemispheres, or halves, of the brain, is known as the corpus ________.
    Callosum. Cutting the corpus callosum prevents the two hemishperes of the brain from communicating with each other.
  39. The reality principle governs the ego, and __________ between the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world.
    Arbitrates.
  40. The superego is that aspect of the personality that refers to ethical or moral considerations, and operates on the __________ principle.
    Idealistic. This is essentially the personality�s control over a sense of morality or conscience and leads individuals to make decisions that may be deemed as giving or selfless.
  41. Nomothetics is the study that seeks to find the ___________ of all people.
    Commonality.

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