Bio 101 Test July 12

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Bio 101 Test July 12
2011-07-09 13:41:34
Bio Test july

BIO 101 Test July 12
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  1. what is an allele?
    An allele is one of two or more forms of a gene Sometimes, different alleles can result in different traits, such as color.
  2. Who is Gregor Mendel?
    Father of Genetics created complete dominance breeding garden peas.
  3. What is phenotype?
    The physical characteristics that are observable, of the offspring.
  4. What is genotype?
    The genotype is the genetic makeup of a cell, an organism, or an individual
  5. What is the dominant allele?
    Dominance in genetics is a relationship between two variant forms of a single gene, in which one allele masks the expression of the other in influencing some trait.
  6. What is a recessive allele?
    An allele whose phenotypic effect is not expressed in a heterozygote.
  7. What is a monohybrid cross?
    - a method of finding out the inheritance pattern of a trait between two single organisms. A purple flower pea plant with a white flower pea plant
  8. What is a dihybrid cross?
    A dihybrid cross is a cross between F 1 offspring (first generation offspring) of two individuals that differ in two traits of particular interest.
  9. What is incomplete dominance?
    A heterozygous condition in which both alleles at a gene locus are partially expressed, often producing an intermediate phenotype. Red and white flower makes pink.
  10. what are p, F1 and F2 generations
    P is mom and dad, then 1st generation, then F2 is second generation
  11. What blood type is the universal doner and which is the universal acceptor?
    Blood type "O" is the universal doner and blood type "AB" is the universal acceptor
  12. Can you have a child with "O" blood type if the parents are A and B blood type?
  13. What is the probability that a child of the parents, whose blood types are AB and B will have B blood type?
    .66 or one quarter
  14. What is pleiotropy?
    Most genes influence multiple factors Sickle cell disease is one pleiotropy
  15. What is polygenic inheritance?
    skin color and height are the additive effects of 2 or more genes on a single phenotype character
  16. What is epistasis?
    when one gene influences the phenotypic effect of the other gene?
  17. What kinds of advantages does CVS have over amniocentesis
    CVS takes several hours and you can do this proceedure at 8 to 10 weeks amnio takes much longer
  18. What criteria are used to determine two chromosomes as homologous
    Chromosomes that are homologous have the same alleles such as Big S and little s "Ss"
  19. What is X-inactivation?
    X-inactivation is females have the "X" chromosome, or X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
  20. What is Barr body?
    A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization,
  21. What is a test cross?
    In genetics, a test cross, first introduced by Gregor Mendel, is used to determine if an individual exhibiting a dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait.
  22. Describe the experiment by Griffith that led to the transformation principle?
    Griffith studied the genetic role of DNA. He used 2 strains of bacteria, one harmless the other pathenogenic. He killed the path. then mixed the dead and other with new, safe bacteria. This created some new disease-causing bacteria.
  23. What is the transformation principle?
    experiments suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation principle
  24. What is Chargraff's Rule?
    Chargraff's rule states that the amount of DNA in any one species was equal. DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, moreover the amount of guanine equal to that of cytosine.
  25. Describe the structure of DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Has a single ring structure of pyridimines Thymine and Cytosine, and a double structure ring of purines called Adenine and Guanine