Philosophy 1

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Philosophy 1
2011-07-09 20:48:03

Philosophy 1
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  1. argument
    a set of statements in which one or more of the statements attempts to provide reasons or evidence of truth of another statement
  2. premise
    reasons that are given for a conclusion; a statement in an argument that serves to provide evidence for the truth of a claim
  3. conclusion
    point one is trying to make; the statement in an argument that the premises are claimed to support or imply
  4. premise indicators [list examples]
    since, because, for, given that
  5. conclusion indicators [list examples]
    therefore, so, hence, thus, consequently
  6. logic
    the study of methods for evaluating arguments and reasoning
  7. deductive argument
    argument that aims at certainty; close relationship between premise and conclusion; the conclusion necessarily follows the premises
  8. inductive argument
    probabilistic reasoning; an argument whose premises make the conclusion highly probable
  9. valid argument
    an argument in which it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
  10. invalid argument
    an argument in which the truth of the conclusion fails to logically follow from the premises
  11. sound argument
    a valid argument with true premises
  12. strong argument
    an inductive argument in which true premises would make the conclusion highly probable
  13. cogent argument
    a strong argument that has true premises
  14. epistemology
    [G: episteme, "knowledge"; logos, "rational discourse"] the philosophy of knowledge; the area of philosophy that deals with questions concerning knowledge and that considers various theories of knowledge
  15. Sophists
    traveling educators during Socrates' day who would offer practical courses for a fee and who taught the doctrine of skepticism
  16. skepticism
    the belief that we cannot have knowledge
  17. ethics
    also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice, etc.
  18. metaphysics
    a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world; "what is reality like?"
  19. wisdom
    knowing what to do (and all this entails)
  20. virtue
    ability to habitually follow the guidance of wisdom; acting in conformity with your better judgement
  21. inner peace
    the internal harmony (of mind, emotion, and body) that comes from living virtuously
  22. Socratic method (7 steps)
    • teaching by asking questions
    • 1. identify philosophical issues in an everyday topic
    • 2. isolate key terms for analysis
    • 3. Socrates professes ignorance [Socratic Irony]
    • 4. Companion proposes definition of key term
    • 5. Socrates exposes weakness of definition by asking questions
    • 6. Companion tries again
    • 7. Companion must face his own ignorance [Socratic Wisdom]
  23. Socratic Wisdom
    the knowledge that you do not know anything; intellectual humility; open-mindedness
  24. conditional statement
    IF antecedent, THEN consequent
  25. fallacy
    an argument form that is logically defective because the premises provide little or no support for the conclusion
  26. hasty generalization fallacy
    forming a generalization about a group with an insufficient sample; [sample of the ocean & declaring total pollution]
  27. false cause fallacy
    someone assumes correlation equates causation; the assumption that because event X occurred before event Y, X caused Y; [black cat & event]
  28. false analogy fallacy
    statements not relevant to conclusion; premises are based on two or more cases that contain more differences than similarities; [blue cars & performance]
  29. ad hominem
    • "against the person"
    • abusive: rejecting a person's conclusion by attacking the person making the claim
    • circumstantial: dismissal of a person's arguments by suggesting that their circumstances are the sole reason why they embrace the conclusion; biased