Card Set Information
Some miscellaneous review cards for the the Neuro part of the USMLE 1
what do you see in the CSF in MS?
increased IgG, oligoclonal bands
what are two symptoms of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy?
1. Motor and cognitive d/f
what causes MLD?
arylsufatase A deficiency (a lysosomal storage dz)
Symptoms of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencenphalopathy?
cortical speech problems
what causes PML?
Sx of Central Pontine Myelinolysis?
+/- locked-in syndrome
Et of CPM?
aggressive tx of hyponatremia
EtOHics, severely malnourished, liver dz
Sx of Guillain-Barre?
ascending inflammatory neuropathy of PNS myelin
cranial nn involvement
sensory loss or pain
absent or decreased rflxs
Et of GBS?
campy....2/3 of pts have respiratory or GI dz 1-3 wks bpc
elevated CSF protein with
: albuminocytologic dissociation
the primary vesicle forebrain becomes the...
the midbrain becomes the...
the hindbrain become the...
whats in the diencephalon?
whats in the metencephalon?
what protein does anterograde transport use?
...its fast, at 400 mm per day
what protein does retrograde tpt use?
...tpts lysosomes and recycled membrane
what two features are seen in stillborn infants with oligohydramnios?
what does the adenohypophysis derive from?
Rathke's Pouch; an outgrowth of oral ectoderm
three sx of normal pressure hydrocephalus
What is a Nissl stain/body?
RER in neuron cell bodies
What type of fibers convey proprioception?
: Golgi tendon organ
What type of fibers convey touch?
What type of fibers convey sharp pain and cold?
What fibers convey dull pain and warmth?
What is in the intermediate zone of the spinal cord from T1 to L2?
preganglionic sympathetic neuron cell bodies
the Clarke nucleus
: sends unconscious proprio to cerebellum
What does the
voluntary skeletal muscle
where does the corticospinal tract originate?
in the primary motor cortex, in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
Where does the corticospinal cross?
in the brain stem, at the pyramidal decussation or the caudal medulla-spinal cord junction
Where is the first synapse of the CST?
in the ventral horn at the same level
What does a lesion of the corticospinal tract above the pyrimidal decussation cause?
what does the knee stretch reflex test?
what does the ankle stretch reflex test?
what does the biceps stretch reflex test?
what does the triceps reflex test?
what is a clasp-knife reflex characteristic of?
what does the the dorsal column-medial lemniscus system do?
sensory info for discriminative touch
...from trunk and limbs
From where does the DCML system originate, and how does it get into the cord?
the cell bodies are in the DRG, then they enter the cord via class 2 or A-beta fibers
What are the two parts of the DCML?
the fasciculus gracilis from the feet
and the fasciculus cuneatus from the arms
What are the 3 receptor cell types of the DCML?
Where does the DCML decussate?
it synapses in the medulla, becomes the medial lemniscus and decussates?
Where does the medial lemniscus synapse?
in the ventroposterior-lateral nucleus of the thalamus, and then on to the post-central gyrus
What do lesions of the dorsal columns cause?
joint position sense
: inability to identify characteristics of an object
what does the spinothalamic tract do?
pain, temperature, crude touch
What is the route of the spinothalamic tract?
receptor - DRG - tract of lissauer - synapse in dorsal horn - cross in spinal cord at the ventral commissure - synapse in the VPL -
How does a lesion of the spinothalamic tract present?
Contralateral loss of pain and temperature
What does the spinocerebellar tract do?
mostly unconscious proprioception from muscle spindles and GTOs to the cerebellum
What does the dorsal spinocerebellar tract do?
input from the lower extremities and lower trunk
what does the cuneocerebellar tract do?
proprioception from upper extremities and trunk to the cerebellumj
What is the lesion and presentation of Polio?
deg'n of LMN of both ventral horns
lesion and presentation of Tabes Dorsalis?
dorsal columns, pretectal nucleus
bilateral dorsal column signs
: sways with eyes closed
Progressive Parasthesias Pain and Polyuria (or oligouria...)
Argyle Robinson pupils
Pres and lesion location of ALS?
progressive atrophy of ventral horn - muscle atrophy
primary lateral sclerosis (corticospinal tract):
spastic paralysis in lower limbs
increased tone and reflexes
flaccid paralysis in upper limbs
Pres and lesion in Anterior Spinal Artery occlusion?
all but the dorsal column
mid-thoracic, weakness, absence of pain and temperature
BUT vibration and pressure remain
What is the cause and lesion in Subacute Combined Deg'n?
Demyelination of the dorsal columns
What is the cause, lesion, and presentation of Syringomyelia?
cavitation of the cord, usually cervical
bilateral loss of pain and temp at the level of the lesion
eventually, muscle weakness, then flaccid paralysis and atrophy of the upper limb muscles due to destruction of ventral horn cells