PR Theories and Systems
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5 Elements of a Communication Model
- 1. Sender/source (encoder)
- 2. Message
- 3. Channel
- 4. Receiver (decoder)
- 5. Feedback
5 Parts of Public Opinion
- 1. Direction (usually yes/no answer)
- 2. Intensity (how strong people feel)
- 3. Stability (how long respondents have or will hold same direction/intensity of feeling)
- 4. Informational support (how much knowledge people hold on opinion)
- 5. Social support (evidence of extent to which people think their opinions shared by others)
Individual's perception of issues/objects in one's environment, as well as perceptions of significant others' views of the same issues/objects.
8 Steps of Public Opinion
- 1. Existing mass sentiment
- 2. Issues/crisis
- 3. Creates a public
- 4. Public debate
- 5. Time
- 6. Public opinion
- 7. Social action
- 8. Mass sentiment (new social value)
9 Publics in PR
- 1. Employee
- 2. Community
- 3. Customer
- 4. Industry/business
- 5. Media
- 6. Academia
- 7. Investment/financial
- 8. Governmental
- 9. Special Interest
Mental position with regard to a fact of statement. Feeling/emotion toward a fact or state.
A view, judgement or appraisal formed in the mind about a particular matter.
Refers to what individual brings to a situation as a result of history. How individuals feel about an object independent of the situation.
6 Types of Distortion
- 1. Hype
- 2. Minimizing
- 3. Overgeneralization
- 4. Categorization
- 5. Labeling
- 6. Image transfer
8 Types of Crisis Communication Management
- 1. Natural
- 2. Technological
- 3. Confrontation
- 4. Malevolence
- 5. Skewed management values
- 6. Deception
- 7. Management misconduct
- 8. Business/Economic
5 Elements of a Successful Message
- 1. Be Received
- 2. Get audience's attention
- 3. Be understood
- 4. Be remembered
- 5. Be acted upon
Complete consensus on an issue exists in a group when there is an infinite series of reciprocating understandings between the members of the group concerning the issue.
Co-Orientational Public Opinion
3 Types of Consensus
- 1. Monolithic (represents high levels of actual agreement accurately recognized as such by those involved).
- 2. False (exist when there is actual disagreement but majority of those involved think they agree).
- 3. Pluralistic Ignorance (represents state of public opinion in which majority perceive little agreement, but in fact there is a widespread agreement)
When two or more individuals' preientations include some issues/objects and each other. Social or interpersonal concept of public opinion requires two or more individuals oriented to and communicationaout an object of mutal interest. Has intra- and inter- personal elements.
Represets the extent to which your estimate matches the other person's actual views
3 Times frames for Crisis Communication
- 1. Immediate Crisis
- 2. Emerging Crisis
- 3. Sustained Crisis
Lippmann's 6 Barriers to Communication
- 1. Artificial censorship
- 2. Limitations of social contract between sender and receiver.
- 3. Lack of time for public affairs
- 4. Distortion
- 5. Making a small vocabulary express a big complicated world
- 6. Fear of facing facts that seem to threaten established routines.
Depends on how an individual defines a situation
Decribes extent to which your own views match your estimate of another's views on the same issue. Some refer to this as "perceived agreement".
Represents extent to which two or more persons share similar evaluations of an issue of mutal interest. Understanding measures similarities in definitions of two or more persons.
PR deals with the interdependence of organizations and others in their environments. PR is o help organizations adjust and adapt to their environment.
Public Relations Ecology
A system is a set of interacting units that endures through time within an established boundary by responding and adjusting to change pressures from the environment to achieve and maintain goal states. In case of PR, the set of interacting units includes the organization and the publics with which is has or will have relations.
All charities under tax expemt umbrella - whole system
Produce changes in the system and environment. PR is part of what organization theorists call the adaptive subsystem, as distance from the production, supportive-disposal, maintenance and managerial subsystems. The managerial subsystem is defined as "direction, adjudication and control" of the other sub-systems.
Changeable ogal to determine if it is relatively open of closed. Differentiates dynamic state of relatively open systems from statis states of closed systems.
Anything that generates change pressures - information, energy and amtter inputs - on a system.
Environments in Systems
A component in one system may be itself analyzed as a system in another context.
Exchange inputs and outputs through boundaries that are permeable. Social systems cannot be completely closed or totally open, so they are either relatively open or relatively closed. Anticipate changes in their environments and make corrective action before major problems.
Refers to changes in structure and process element in the open system.
7 Areas that Encounter Great Change with Time
- 1. Protecting the environment
- 2. Health care reform
- 3. AIDS
- 4. Globalization of business and economics
- 5. Global communication in information age
- 6. Realignment of the family and work
- 7. Civil rights and the empowerment of individuals
Study of the input-output self-regulatons process in systems. 5 elements: goals established in control center; outputs related to goals which have an impact on the state of the system and its environment; feedback to the control center on effects effects the output; a comparison of the new system state with the goal state; and control center determination of the need for corrective output.
- Cybernetics in Open Systems
- (by Walter Buckley)
4 Approaches to Gaining Compliance
- 1. Sanction strategies (reward/punishment)
- 2. Altruism strategies (call upon receiver to help)
- 3. Argument strategies (direct requests)
- 4. Circumvention strategies (misrepresent situation)
Something people do. It has no life its own. There is no magic about it except what people in the communication relationship put into it. When one studies communication, they are actually studying people, relating to each other and their groups , organizations and societies - influencing each other and being influenced, informing and being informed, taching and being taught, entertaining and being entertained - by means of certain signs that exist separately from either of them. To understand the human communication process, one must understand how people relate to each other.
Definition of Communication (Wilbur Schramm)
Changing both the organization and environment. Relationship with organization and publics maintained/changes on basis of reciprocal output-feedback adjustment. PR has potential to act in an advisory capacity and have impact on decision-making.
Functional Approach (Professional PR)
A very fluid dynamic attempts to get the attention of the media, the publics and/or policy makers
PR functionaries attempt to preserve and promote a favorable image of the organization in the community on the idea that is the organization is "liked" the public will continue to absorb the organization's outputs. Only conerned with supplying information about the organization to the environment. No feedback.
Functionary Role (Craft PR)
Set of issues. To be effective and part of the process, must be communicated. Agendas result from a dynamic interplay.
- How people adopt or reject new ideas.
- 1. Process
- 2. Complexity
- 3. Sources of information
- 4. Individuals
- 5. Timeline
Four Step Process for Informing
- 1. Attracting attention to the communication
- 2. Achieving acceptance of the message
- 3. Having it interpreted as intended
- 4. Gatting the message stored for later use
Includes those constituents that can positively or negatively influence the organization's effectiveness. It's unique to each organization and changes with conditions.
Organizations Specific Environment
Something intrinsically valuable or desirable; something esteemed and deeply rooted.
State/habit of mind in which tust or confidence places in some person or thing.
Occurs within groups of communicating people, who together determine what the issue is, why it is a cause for public concern, and what can be done about it. While process unquestionable involves private cognition, individuals thoughts about a social issue are largely dependent for both form and content on public discussion.
3 Factors That Make Latent Publics Active
- 1. Problem recognition
- 2. Constraint recognition
- 3. Level of involvement
4 Public Types
- 1. All-issue publics (active on all issues)
- 2. Apathetic publics (inattentive and inactive on all issues)
- 3. Signle-issue publics (active on limited number of issues)
- 4. Hot-issue publics (respond/become active after bring exposed to an issue)
By the time majority group is trying the idea, the process has been diffused tremendously and this is what that point refers to.
Older; less education; less active in the community; fewer sources of information. Relies heavility on influence of early majority.
Younger, more education; participate more in church/school/community; avoid untried ideas, but quickest to use tested ideas. Important group.
5 Types of Individuals
- 1. Innovators
- 2. Early Adopters
- 3. Early Majority
- 4. Majority
- 5. Non-Adopters/Laggards
Individuals who think their opinion conflicts with the opinions of others and tend to remain silent. Silence can cause an erroneous conclusion that not majority. Spiral starts when indiviudals remain silent.
Spiral of Silence
Less activity; less information; less education. Family ties likely to be very important. New ideas may conflict with teaching of parents, religion, tradition. Likely to be non-adapters.
Slightly above average in age, education and experience. Medium high in economic and social status. Active in community groups but not in leadership roles. Respected in own circles. Not innovators. Informed leaders. Important group.
First to adopt new ideas. Independent thinkers; prestige/power; high net worth; out in front of others; have risk capital. 2-3 in a community.
5-Stage Adoption Process
- 1. Awareness (hard of idea/lack details)
- 2. Interest (develops interest/gathers info)
- 3. Evaluation (can I do it?)
- 4. trial (how to do it?)
- 5. Acceptance/Adoption (satisfaction)
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