Preface and Chapter 1: The Self

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kelc
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93600
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Preface and Chapter 1: The Self
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2011-07-14 23:51:00
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essential social psyc vocab
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essential social psych vocabulary chapter 1
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  1. Social behavior
    behavior that takes place in a social context and results from interaction between individuals
  2. Social psychology
    study of social behavior
  3. Hypotheses
    tentative predictions or explanations for an observation or phenomenon that can be empirically tested
  4. Internal validity
    the extent to which an association between an independent variable and a dependent variable reflects a causal relationship between the two
  5. External validity
    the extent to which the results of research can be applied to circumstances outside the specific setting in which the research was conducted
  6. Demand characteristics
    environmental cues that make participants aware of what the experimenter expects to find or how participants are expected to behave
  7. Experimenter effects
    subtle cues or signals that are given out by an experimenter who knows the experimental hypothesis
  8. Archival research
    the reanalysis and interpretation of information collected by others for a different purpose
  9. Self
    fundamental part of every human, a symbolic construct which reflects our consciousness of our own identity
  10. Self-awareness
    • psychological state in which people are aware of their traits, feelings and behavior
    • realizations of oneself as an individual entity
  11. Anterior cingulate
    are of the frontal lobe in the cerebral cortex responsible for monitoring/controlling intentional behavior
  12. Private self-awareness
    when an individual temporarily becomes aware of private, personal aspects of the self
  13. Intensified emotional response
    when reflecting on one's feelings intensifies them with private self-awareness
  14. Clarification of knowledge
    more accurate self-knowledge with private self-awareness
  15. Adhere to personal standards of behavior
    more aware of true beliefs and acting in line with them with private self-awareness
  16. Public self-awareness
    when a person is aware of public aspects of themselves that can be seen and evaluated by others
  17. Evaluation apprehension
    concern about being evaluated by others in public self-awareness
  18. Loss of self-esteem
    if a person's actual public image does not match their desired public image, public self-awareness can lead to this
  19. Adherence to social standards of behavior
    more likely to conform to group norms even if it goes against their normal attitudes in public self-awareness
  20. Self-consciousness
    chronic self-awareness
  21. Private self-consciousness
    experience more intense emotions, more likely to remain true to personal beliefs, and have more accurate self-perceptions
  22. Public self-consciousness
    more likely to adhere to group norms, avoid embarrassing situations, concerned with own physical appearance, and likely to judge others based on their physical appearances
  23. Schemas
    cognitive structures that represent the knowledge we have about a particular concept or type of stimulus
  24. Self-schematic
    we are self-schematic on a particular self-schema if it is highly embedded in our self-concept; this is likely to be the case for a self-schema that we are extreme on, that is particularly important to us, and for which we are certain that the opposite is not true
  25. Self-aschematic
    occurs on a dimension if it is not important to you and does not reflect who you are
  26. Control theory of self-regulation
    theory proposing that we use our self-awareness to assess whether or not we are meeting our goals and, if not, make efforts to improve the self in line with these goals
  27. Test phase of control theory of self-regulation
    compare the self against one of two standards; public or private based on type of self-awareness
  28. Operation phase of control theory of self-regulation
    change in behavior in order to meet the chosen standard
  29. Re-testing phase of control theory of self-regulation
    re-compare self against public or private standard
  30. Exit phase of control theory of self-regulation
    if self and standard align with each other, the individual exits the self-regulation loop
  31. Self-discrepancy theory
    according to this theory, we compare the self to two points of reference, the ideal self and the ought self. Discrepancies between actual and ideal self can lead to dejection-related emotions and discrepancies between actual and ought self lead to agitation-related emotions
  32. Actual self (Higgins)
    reflects how we are at present
  33. Ideal self (Higgins)
    point of reference which reflects how we would really like to be
  34. Ought self (Higgins)
    represents the traits or characteristics that an individual believes they should possess, based on a sense of duty, responsibility or obligation
  35. Social comparison theory
    theory that proposes that we form a definition of the self by comparing ourselves with those around us
  36. Self-evaluation maintenance model
    Tesser proposed that comparison with someone who is successful results in self-reflection or social-comparison, depending on whether that success is relevant domain, and on whether we are certain of our own performance in that domain
  37. Social reflection
    associating ourselves with the success of close others
  38. Upward social comparison
    comparing our achievements with the achievements of others who we believe are outperforming us
  39. Four strategies in the self-evaluation model
    • 1. exaggerate the ability of successful target
    • 2. change the target of comparison
    • 3. distance the self from successful target
    • 4. devalue the dimension of comparison
  40. Individual self - Brewer & Gardner
    unique, personal aspects of the self - personality traits and personal preferences
  41. Relational self - Brewer and Gardner
    defined by our relationships with significant others
  42. Collective self - Brewer and Gardner
    aspects of the self that reflect relationships with other individuals and groups - family status
  43. Social identity theory
    theory which proposes that when our membership in a particular group is salient, it is our social self rather than our personal self that guides our self-concept, attitudes and behavior - this explains how affiliation to groups influences behavior
  44. Personal identity
    reflects idiosyncratic aspects of the self, including our personality traits and our close relationships with other individuals
  45. Social identity
    reflects our membership in a particular group, and incorporates the attitudes, behaviors and social norms associated with that group
  46. Group norms
    a collection of shared beliefs about how group members should think and behave
  47. Self-categorization theory
    an extension of social identity theory which proposes that when an individual's social identity is salient they come to see themselves as a depersonalized group member rather than an idiosyncratic individual - they self-stereotype
  48. Depersonalization
    when group membership is salient, individuals come to see themselves in terms of the shared features that define the group membership, thinking and behaving as a group member rather than as a unique individual
  49. Meta-contrast principle
    group members exaggerate similarities within the group and differences with other groups
  50. Self-esteem
    an individual's personal evaluation of their own self-concept
  51. Demanding aspect of parenting
    controlling, imposing rules and punishments
  52. Responsive aspect of parenting
    warm and supportive
  53. Authoritative parenting
    place a lot of demands on their child, imposing rules on them and disciplining them for disobedience but they are also responsive, supportive and warm
  54. Authoritarian parenting
    overly strict and demanding, failing to be responsive to the child's needs
  55. Permissive parenting
    responsive but not strict enough, indulging their child's every desire
  56. Mood regulation
    people with high self-esteem are better at regulating their mood than those with lower self-esteem and are better able to react constructively to life events
  57. Self-assessment
    people are motivated to hold an accurate self-perception and seek out information which will help them to do so
  58. Diagnostic tests
    evaluate the performance of an individual and distinguish their performance from the performance of others, when evaluating the self
  59. Self-verification
    people are motivated to confirm their existing self-perceptions and so often seek out similar others who are most likely to do so
  60. Self-enhancement
    people are motivated to hold a positive self-image and are selectively biased toward information that helps them to see themselves in a positive light
  61. Self-affirmation theory
    the idea that people respond to threats to self by affirming positive aspects of themselves, allowing them to maintain a positive self-concept
  62. Self-serving attribution bias
    we have a pervasive tendency to attribute successes to internal, personal attributes and failure to external factors outside of our control
  63. Including others in the self
    our self-concept cognitively overlaps with the self-concept of close friends and romantic partners
  64. Extended contact effect
    just knowing memebers of the ingroup who have friends in an outgroup reduces prejudice
  65. Social change strategy
    low status group members compete with the high status group to improve their status relative to that group
  66. Social creativity strategy
    low status group members finding new dimensions on which they compare more favorably
  67. Dis-identify
    strategy which members of a low status group use to maintain a positive self-concept by distancing themselves from the group, disregarding he importance of that group membership
  68. Basking in reflected glory
    people often derive a positive self-concept from the achievements of other group members even if they were not personally instrumental in those achievements
  69. Cutting off reflected failure
    when a group is unsuccessful, group members may limit damage to their own self-concept by distancing themselves from the group. However, this strategy is only used by individuals for whom the group is not highly important
  70. Individualist culture
    culture that promotes individual goals, initiative and achievements, encouraging people to view themselves as unique and independent individuals - US, UK
  71. Collectivist culture
    culture that promotes conformity, and actions that promote the best interests of the group rather than its individual members, placing high value on cooperation, social support and respect for others - China, India
  72. Bicultural
    people who are adept at dealing with both cultures (their own and their host society's)
  73. Alternation model
    an individual may successfully take part in two different cultures by understanding the cultural assumptions that guide attitudes and behavior in both, and switching smoothly between the two depending on the social context

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