CA1 Tissue

The flashcards below were created by user tealeaf on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What are tissues?
    Groups or cellections of cells that perform the same general funtion
  2. Name the 4 types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  3. What is the function of cilia
    • Tiny hair like structures near the basement level of simple columnar cells. They help with movement.
    • Ex: they line the reproductive tubes to MOVE the egg.

    • Non-ciliated - cells that have no cilia
    • Line the digestive tract
    • -stomach
    • -small & large intestine
    • movement takes place via partitasis muscles.
  4. What is the function of microvili
    • Specialized simple columnar cells
    • Small finger like extensions that increase the suface area for absorbtion (of nutrients) - takes things in.
  5. What are the four functions of epithesial tissue
    • Protection
    • Secretion (destination w/in the body/internal)
    • Absorption
    • Excretion (destination outside the body, waste products)
  6. Why doesn't epithelial tissue heal well/lacks the ability to repair?
    Lacks blood vessels
  7. What are three (sub)types of epithelial tissues identified by cell layers
    • Simple
    • Stratified
    • Pseudostratified
  8. What are pseudostratified tissue?
    They contain one layer of cells connected at the basement membrane. They appear to have multiple layers (but don't).

    • commonly has cilia and goblet cells which secrete
    • mucus
  9. Where are simple squamous cells found?
    • Air sacs of lungs
    • Capillaries
    • Membranes that line the body
    • (They're a single layer of flat cells)
  10. What is the location of eputhelial tissue?
    • Covers body surface
    • Covers/lines internal organs
    • Composes glands
  11. What are the characteristics of epithesial tissue?
    • Continuous cellular sheet
    • Lacks blood vessels
    • Has basement membrane
    • Readily divides
    • Tightly packed
  12. Cancer cells spread into adjacent tissues by:
    Secreting substance that disolves basement membrane allowing them to spread into adjacent tissues.
  13. Simple epithelial tissues are
    • one layer
    • substances pas through easily
  14. Striated epithelial tissues are
    • multi-layered
    • thick
  15. What are the three (sub)types of epithelial tissues identified by shape?
    • Squamous (flat cells, looks like fried eggs)
    • Columnar (tall, culindrical cells)
    • Cuboidal (cube shaped cells)
  16. Simple squamous cells (single layer of flat cells)
    • Fragile -easily damaged
    • Allow substances (ex: salt) to pass through easily (diffusion & filtration)
    • Compse air sacs of lungs (alveoli)
    • Capillaries (tiny blood vessels all over the body, that collect and secrete)
    • Membranes that line the body
  17. Simple cuboidal (single layer of cube cells - can change shape as things grow)

    • Covers ovaries
    • Line kidney tubules
    • Line ducts of glands
  18. Simple columnar (single layer of columnar cells - tall/long)
    • Ciliated (line reproductive tubes)
    • Non-ciliated (line digestive tract)
    • Microvilli (absorbtion)
  19. Pseudosratified columnar (single layer of cells that appear stratified)
    • Ex: Goblet Cells
    • Lines the passage of the respiratory system
    • Secrets mucus to trap dust
  20. Statified squamous (many layers of flat cells)
    • Compose the outermost layer : Skin (epidermis)
    • Deep layers are cube or columnar shaped
    • Superficial layers are sqamous (flat) cells
    • Cells replicate at the basement membrane
    • Older cells are pushed away from the basement membrane
    • Older cells accumulate a protein (keratin), they harden and die (dandriff)
    • Lines the oral cavaty (mouth - heals heat burns/sharp cuts)
    • Lines the anal cavity (acide from stomach)
  21. Stratified cuboidal (2 or 3 layers of cube cells - more protection than single layer)
    • Secrets
    • Lines larger ducts and tubules
    • -mammary glands
    • -sweat glands
    • -salvary glands
    • -pancreas
  22. Stratified columnar (several layers of clumnar cells)
    • Lines the pharynx (back of the mouth)
    • Lines the vas deferens (tube that delivers sperm in men)
  23. * Transitional epithelium
    • Specialized epithelium - changes shape in response to tension
    • Lines the urinary bladder (lines organs)
  24. Glandular epithelium
    • -Specialized epithelial cells that produce and secretes substances
    • -Exocrine glands
    • -Endocrine glands
  25. Exocrine glands
    (stomach = outside/surface)

    -secrets products into ducts (tube that delivers products to the surface ex: sweat glands)
  26. Endocrine glands
    • (inner - inside of cheek)
    • -secretes products (somethng useful) into tissue or blood (circulatory system)

    Ex: hormones start in the brain and work down into the body)
  27. What is connective tissue?
    • Binds structures together (ex: joint capsule)
    • Provides support
    • Protects
    • Fills spaces (fascia - surrounds muscle)
    • Stores fat
    • Produces blood cells (makes marrow)
    • Repairs damaged tissue
    • Not tightly packed like epithelial cells
    • Cells can divide (replaces damage/rapidly repairs)
    • Has various vascularity (blood supply)
  28. What are the major cell types of connective tissue?
    • Fibroblasts
    • Macrophage
    • Mast Cells
  29. What is the matrix?
    The substance between cells
  30. Fibroblast cells
    • Produces protein fibers (collagen/strong)
    • Makes new stuff/proteins
    • Elastin
    • Reticular fibers
  31. Collagen
    • -Thick threads of protein
    • - Flexible
    • -Slightly elastic
    • -Great strength (VERY STRONG like silly putty - tinsile strength)
    • Holds structures together
  32. Elastin
    • Vocal cords, respiratory system air passageways
    • -Thinner strand of elastic protein
    • -Weaker than collagen
  33. Reticular fibers
    • Ex: Spleen
    • Supportive fibers
    • Very think collagen fibers
    • Supporting networks of tissues
  34. Macrophage
    • Immunity - like the pacman on the body - eats the things that invade the body - trash disposal
    • -Begin with white blood cells
    • -Are mobile, can move about the body
    • -Specialized in phagocytosis (cell eating)
    • -Important in protection against infection
  35. Mast cells
    • Large cells located near blood vessels
    • Releases heprin (sticky blood thinner) *prevents blood clots (plateletts)
    • Releases histamine *promotes inflammation, allergic reactions, swelling
  36. What are the different types of connective tissue?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Elastic connective tissue
    • Cartilage
    • Bones
    • Blood
  37. Loose connective tissue
    • Composed primarily of fibroblasts
    • Fascia (raw eggwhites)
  38. Adipose tissue
    • Yellowish
    • Fat
    • Specialized cells that store fat
    • Contine to enlarge to store fat
  39. Reticular tissue
    • Support cells
    • Thin collagen fibers
    • Support organs: liver, spleen
  40. Dense connective tissue
    • Holds parts together (muscle to bone = tendon)
    • Tendons
    • Ligaments (bone to bone)
  41. Elastic connective tissue
    • Elastic fibers
    • Found in large arteries and liament fo the spinal column and in skin
  42. Cartilage
    • Ridgid connective tissue
    • Composed of collagen fibers
    • Cartilage cells (chondrocytes or "cartilage site")
    • Lack direct bloodflow supply, that is why torn cartilage heals slowly and why chondrocytes do not divide frequently.
    • Covered by perchondrium (CT) (around living in), *contains blood supply for cartilage cells
  43. Where is cartilage located?
    At the end of bones, ears, nose, disks...
  44. Carliage cells
    • Chondrocytes
    • Live in small houses (lacunae - lake)
    • Lack direct blood supply - slow repair time
    • Divide slowly
  45. Name the three types of cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  46. Hyaline Cartilage
    • aka Articular Cartilage
    • Most absorbant
    • Hard white plastic (magic shell ice cream)
    • Coveres ends of bones
    • Very smooth (reduces friction)
  47. Elastic Cartilage
    • Found in the nose and ears
    • Flexible
    • Contains many elastic fibers
    • External ears
  48. Fibrocartilage
    • Breaks down over time
    • Toughest of the three types
    • Shock absorber
    • Intervertebral discs (spine)
    • Menisci in knee (spacers)
  49. Bones
    • Most ridig of the connective tissue (hard)
    • Matrix contains calcium and phosphate salts
    • Bone cells (osteocystes)
  50. Bone cells
    • aka Osteocytes
    • Lay layers of bone matrix around them (lamellae)
    • Live in houses (lacunae)
    • Form circles around central (haversian) canals (allow communication) *contain blood vessels
  51. Blood
    • Has 3 cell types
    • Produced by cells inside the bone (marrow)
    • Red blood cells *carry oxygen and carbon dioxiode to cells and waste out of cells
    • White blood cells * fight infection
    • Platelets *help form clots (sticky cells that prevent flow)
  52. What are the three types of Muscle Tissue?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Smooth muscles
    • Cardiac muscle
  53. Skeltal muscle
    • Voluntary control (like the diaphram)
    • Look like they have stripes (striated) the stripes are long cells
    • Each cell can have many nuclei
  54. Smooth Muscles
    • Lack striations (can contract in various ways)
    • Single nucleus
    • Involuntary control (stomach grumble) *digestive system (pushes food through paristalsis) *blood vessels *urinary bladder
  55. Cardiac muscles
    • Located in the heart (only)
    • Cells are connected by intercalated discs
    • Involuntary control (symchronized contractions) lub dub lub dub
  56. Nervous tissue
    • Found in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
    • Specialized for electrical conduction (communication & organization)
    • Neurons are basic cells
  57. Organ
    A collection of two or more tissue types performing specialized fuctions
  58. Integumentary system
    • Skin - has all 4 tissue types
    • Largest organ in the body by weight
    • Skin + acessory structures
    • Epthelial membranes (4 types)
  59. What are the 4 types of epithealial membranes?
    • Serous (oily)
    • Mucous (snot)
    • Synovial (lubricating fluid, jut. juice)
    • Cutaneous (skin)

    *Note: These are NOT organs
  60. Serous membrane
    • Lines the wall of body cavities that are not exposed to external environment (parietal=wall) *Thoracic cavity *Abdominal cavity * Pelvic cavity
    • Covers organs within cavities (viceral)
    • Composed of simple squamous cells and a thin layer of connective tissue
    • Secrets a thin watery substance (serous fluid) that lubricates the surfaces of the membrane (so there is no friction)
  61. Mucous membrane
    • Lines cavities that open to the external environment *oral cavity *nasal cavity *tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive system
    • Epithesial tissue covers loose connective tissue(protection) *stratified squamous (oral), *psuedostratified columnar (nasal), *simple columnar (small intestine)
    • Goblet cells secrete MUCUS (wine glass shaped cells)
  62. Synovial membrane
    • Most freely moveable
    • Lines synovial joint cavities
    • Fibrous connective tissue overlying loose connective tissue & adepose
    • Secretes synovial fluid into the joint space (not serous fluid) *thick & colorless (egg whites), *lubricates ends of bones
  63. Cutaneous membrane (integumentary system)
    • Skin & its tissues (largest organ of the body)
    • Fuctions: *Maintain homeostasis, *Protective covering, *Prevents water loss
    • Helps regulate body temperature
    • Houses sensory receptors (light/deep touch)
    • Contains immune system cells
    • Suthesizes various chemicals (vitamin D)
    • Excretes small amounts of waste products
  64. Vitamin D
    • Synthesized in our skin
    • Bone & tooth development
    • Dehydrocholesterol (provitamin D) reaches our skin it is exposed to ultraviolet light (sunlight) and is convereted to Vit D.
  65. Transdermal patch
    • Used for motion sickness, chest pain, smoking cessation
    • The drug passes from the patch & diffuses in the epidermis & enters the blood vessels in the dermal layer of skin (slower, but more constant).
Card Set
CA1 Tissue
Clinical Anatomy Tissue
Show Answers