CA1 Tissue

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CA1 Tissue
2011-07-11 20:10:07
clinical anatomy

Clinical Anatomy Tissue
Show Answers:

  1. What are tissues?
    Groups or cellections of cells that perform the same general funtion
  2. Name the 4 types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  3. What is the function of cilia
    • Tiny hair like structures near the basement level of simple columnar cells. They help with movement.
    • Ex: they line the reproductive tubes to MOVE the egg.

    • Non-ciliated - cells that have no cilia
    • Line the digestive tract
    • -stomach
    • -small & large intestine
    • movement takes place via partitasis muscles.
  4. What is the function of microvili
    • Specialized simple columnar cells
    • Small finger like extensions that increase the suface area for absorbtion (of nutrients) - takes things in.
  5. What are the four functions of epithesial tissue
    • Protection
    • Secretion (destination w/in the body/internal)
    • Absorption
    • Excretion (destination outside the body, waste products)
  6. Why doesn't epithelial tissue heal well/lacks the ability to repair?
    Lacks blood vessels
  7. What are three (sub)types of epithelial tissues identified by cell layers
    • Simple
    • Stratified
    • Pseudostratified
  8. What are pseudostratified tissue?
    They contain one layer of cells connected at the basement membrane. They appear to have multiple layers (but don't).

    • commonly has cilia and goblet cells which secrete
    • mucus
  9. Where are simple squamous cells found?
    • Air sacs of lungs
    • Capillaries
    • Membranes that line the body
    • (They're a single layer of flat cells)
  10. What is the location of eputhelial tissue?
    • Covers body surface
    • Covers/lines internal organs
    • Composes glands
  11. What are the characteristics of epithesial tissue?
    • Continuous cellular sheet
    • Lacks blood vessels
    • Has basement membrane
    • Readily divides
    • Tightly packed
  12. Cancer cells spread into adjacent tissues by:
    Secreting substance that disolves basement membrane allowing them to spread into adjacent tissues.
  13. Simple epithelial tissues are
    • one layer
    • substances pas through easily
  14. Striated epithelial tissues are
    • multi-layered
    • thick
  15. What are the three (sub)types of epithelial tissues identified by shape?
    • Squamous (flat cells, looks like fried eggs)
    • Columnar (tall, culindrical cells)
    • Cuboidal (cube shaped cells)
  16. Simple squamous cells (single layer of flat cells)
    • Fragile -easily damaged
    • Allow substances (ex: salt) to pass through easily (diffusion & filtration)
    • Compse air sacs of lungs (alveoli)
    • Capillaries (tiny blood vessels all over the body, that collect and secrete)
    • Membranes that line the body
  17. Simple cuboidal (single layer of cube cells - can change shape as things grow)

    • Covers ovaries
    • Line kidney tubules
    • Line ducts of glands
  18. Simple columnar (single layer of columnar cells - tall/long)
    • Ciliated (line reproductive tubes)
    • Non-ciliated (line digestive tract)
    • Microvilli (absorbtion)
  19. Pseudosratified columnar (single layer of cells that appear stratified)
    • Ex: Goblet Cells
    • Lines the passage of the respiratory system
    • Secrets mucus to trap dust
  20. Statified squamous (many layers of flat cells)
    • Compose the outermost layer : Skin (epidermis)
    • Deep layers are cube or columnar shaped
    • Superficial layers are sqamous (flat) cells
    • Cells replicate at the basement membrane
    • Older cells are pushed away from the basement membrane
    • Older cells accumulate a protein (keratin), they harden and die (dandriff)
    • Lines the oral cavaty (mouth - heals heat burns/sharp cuts)
    • Lines the anal cavity (acide from stomach)
  21. Stratified cuboidal (2 or 3 layers of cube cells - more protection than single layer)
    • Secrets
    • Lines larger ducts and tubules
    • -mammary glands
    • -sweat glands
    • -salvary glands
    • -pancreas
  22. Stratified columnar (several layers of clumnar cells)
    • Lines the pharynx (back of the mouth)
    • Lines the vas deferens (tube that delivers sperm in men)
  23. * Transitional epithelium
    • Specialized epithelium - changes shape in response to tension
    • Lines the urinary bladder (lines organs)
  24. Glandular epithelium
    • -Specialized epithelial cells that produce and secretes substances
    • -Exocrine glands
    • -Endocrine glands
  25. Exocrine glands
    (stomach = outside/surface)

    -secrets products into ducts (tube that delivers products to the surface ex: sweat glands)
  26. Endocrine glands
    • (inner - inside of cheek)
    • -secretes products (somethng useful) into tissue or blood (circulatory system)

    Ex: hormones start in the brain and work down into the body)
  27. What is connective tissue?
    • Binds structures together (ex: joint capsule)
    • Provides support
    • Protects
    • Fills spaces (fascia - surrounds muscle)
    • Stores fat
    • Produces blood cells (makes marrow)
    • Repairs damaged tissue
    • Not tightly packed like epithelial cells
    • Cells can divide (replaces damage/rapidly repairs)
    • Has various vascularity (blood supply)
  28. What are the major cell types of connective tissue?
    • Fibroblasts
    • Macrophage
    • Mast Cells
  29. What is the matrix?
    The substance between cells
  30. Fibroblast cells
    • Produces protein fibers (collagen/strong)
    • Makes new stuff/proteins
    • Elastin
    • Reticular fibers
  31. Collagen
    • -Thick threads of protein
    • - Flexible
    • -Slightly elastic
    • -Great strength (VERY STRONG like silly putty - tinsile strength)
    • Holds structures together
  32. Elastin
    • Vocal cords, respiratory system air passageways
    • -Thinner strand of elastic protein
    • -Weaker than collagen
  33. Reticular fibers
    • Ex: Spleen
    • Supportive fibers
    • Very think collagen fibers
    • Supporting networks of tissues
  34. Macrophage
    • Immunity - like the pacman on the body - eats the things that invade the body - trash disposal
    • -Begin with white blood cells
    • -Are mobile, can move about the body
    • -Specialized in phagocytosis (cell eating)
    • -Important in protection against infection
  35. Mast cells
    • Large cells located near blood vessels
    • Releases heprin (sticky blood thinner) *prevents blood clots (plateletts)
    • Releases histamine *promotes inflammation, allergic reactions, swelling
  36. What are the different types of connective tissue?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Adipose tissue
    • Reticular tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
    • Elastic connective tissue
    • Cartilage
    • Bones
    • Blood
  37. Loose connective tissue
    • Composed primarily of fibroblasts
    • Fascia (raw eggwhites)
  38. Adipose tissue
    • Yellowish
    • Fat
    • Specialized cells that store fat
    • Contine to enlarge to store fat
  39. Reticular tissue
    • Support cells
    • Thin collagen fibers
    • Support organs: liver, spleen
  40. Dense connective tissue
    • Holds parts together (muscle to bone = tendon)
    • Tendons
    • Ligaments (bone to bone)
  41. Elastic connective tissue
    • Elastic fibers
    • Found in large arteries and liament fo the spinal column and in skin
  42. Cartilage
    • Ridgid connective tissue
    • Composed of collagen fibers
    • Cartilage cells (chondrocytes or "cartilage site")
    • Lack direct bloodflow supply, that is why torn cartilage heals slowly and why chondrocytes do not divide frequently.
    • Covered by perchondrium (CT) (around living in), *contains blood supply for cartilage cells
  43. Where is cartilage located?
    At the end of bones, ears, nose, disks...
  44. Carliage cells
    • Chondrocytes
    • Live in small houses (lacunae - lake)
    • Lack direct blood supply - slow repair time
    • Divide slowly
  45. Name the three types of cartilage
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  46. Hyaline Cartilage
    • aka Articular Cartilage
    • Most absorbant
    • Hard white plastic (magic shell ice cream)
    • Coveres ends of bones
    • Very smooth (reduces friction)
  47. Elastic Cartilage
    • Found in the nose and ears
    • Flexible
    • Contains many elastic fibers
    • External ears
  48. Fibrocartilage
    • Breaks down over time
    • Toughest of the three types
    • Shock absorber
    • Intervertebral discs (spine)
    • Menisci in knee (spacers)
  49. Bones
    • Most ridig of the connective tissue (hard)
    • Matrix contains calcium and phosphate salts
    • Bone cells (osteocystes)
  50. Bone cells
    • aka Osteocytes
    • Lay layers of bone matrix around them (lamellae)
    • Live in houses (lacunae)
    • Form circles around central (haversian) canals (allow communication) *contain blood vessels
  51. Blood
    • Has 3 cell types
    • Produced by cells inside the bone (marrow)
    • Red blood cells *carry oxygen and carbon dioxiode to cells and waste out of cells
    • White blood cells * fight infection
    • Platelets *help form clots (sticky cells that prevent flow)
  52. What are the three types of Muscle Tissue?
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Smooth muscles
    • Cardiac muscle
  53. Skeltal muscle
    • Voluntary control (like the diaphram)
    • Look like they have stripes (striated) the stripes are long cells
    • Each cell can have many nuclei
  54. Smooth Muscles
    • Lack striations (can contract in various ways)
    • Single nucleus
    • Involuntary control (stomach grumble) *digestive system (pushes food through paristalsis) *blood vessels *urinary bladder
  55. Cardiac muscles
    • Located in the heart (only)
    • Cells are connected by intercalated discs
    • Involuntary control (symchronized contractions) lub dub lub dub
  56. Nervous tissue
    • Found in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
    • Specialized for electrical conduction (communication & organization)
    • Neurons are basic cells
  57. Organ
    A collection of two or more tissue types performing specialized fuctions
  58. Integumentary system
    • Skin - has all 4 tissue types
    • Largest organ in the body by weight
    • Skin + acessory structures
    • Epthelial membranes (4 types)
  59. What are the 4 types of epithealial membranes?
    • Serous (oily)
    • Mucous (snot)
    • Synovial (lubricating fluid, jut. juice)
    • Cutaneous (skin)

    *Note: These are NOT organs
  60. Serous membrane
    • Lines the wall of body cavities that are not exposed to external environment (parietal=wall) *Thoracic cavity *Abdominal cavity * Pelvic cavity
    • Covers organs within cavities (viceral)
    • Composed of simple squamous cells and a thin layer of connective tissue
    • Secrets a thin watery substance (serous fluid) that lubricates the surfaces of the membrane (so there is no friction)
  61. Mucous membrane
    • Lines cavities that open to the external environment *oral cavity *nasal cavity *tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive system
    • Epithesial tissue covers loose connective tissue(protection) *stratified squamous (oral), *psuedostratified columnar (nasal), *simple columnar (small intestine)
    • Goblet cells secrete MUCUS (wine glass shaped cells)
  62. Synovial membrane
    • Most freely moveable
    • Lines synovial joint cavities
    • Fibrous connective tissue overlying loose connective tissue & adepose
    • Secretes synovial fluid into the joint space (not serous fluid) *thick & colorless (egg whites), *lubricates ends of bones
  63. Cutaneous membrane (integumentary system)
    • Skin & its tissues (largest organ of the body)
    • Fuctions: *Maintain homeostasis, *Protective covering, *Prevents water loss
    • Helps regulate body temperature
    • Houses sensory receptors (light/deep touch)
    • Contains immune system cells
    • Suthesizes various chemicals (vitamin D)
    • Excretes small amounts of waste products
  64. Vitamin D
    • Synthesized in our skin
    • Bone & tooth development
    • Dehydrocholesterol (provitamin D) reaches our skin it is exposed to ultraviolet light (sunlight) and is convereted to Vit D.
  65. Transdermal patch
    • Used for motion sickness, chest pain, smoking cessation
    • The drug passes from the patch & diffuses in the epidermis & enters the blood vessels in the dermal layer of skin (slower, but more constant).