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  1. what are hurricanes
    • low pressure systems
    • blow toward the center
    • blow counterclockwize
    • atlantic ocean and eastern ocean called hurricane
  2. what is needed for a huricane to form
    • warm water (80 F)
    • form from thunderstorms
    • high relative humidity
    • good off flow of upper trosphere winds
  3. unorganized thunderstorms over the ocean
    tropical waves
  4. if they become organized and begin to rotate
    tropical depression
  5. if wind speed increase beyond 38 mph they become
    tropical storms
  6. if wind exceed 74 mph
  7. what is more deadly for a huricane
    rain storm surge
  8. where do most storms form in june and july early season
    caribbean and gulf of mexico
  9. trocical waves off coast of africa and move west
    cape verde season aug and sep
  10. form in the southern carbbeann
    late season oct to nov
  11. whats wrong with the Saffir simpson scale
    measure rotational wind speed but does not take in account for speed of the hurricane moving
  12. more people are killed by what
  13. does a slow or fast hurrican produce more water
  14. storm surge factors
    • shape of the coastline
    • landscape of the contiental shelf
    • hight tide vs low tide
  15. el nino
    • tropical winds blow east to west
    • pacific ocean can affect atmosphere and oceans
    • normal surface currents are disrupted
  16. peroidic changes in normal atmospheric pressure and wind patterns
    the southern oscillation
  17. el nino suthern osciliation or
  18. normal conditions in pacific ocean
    • trade winds blow east to west
    • surface cirrent follow the tradewinds e to w
    • warm water collects in the western pacific
    • sea leavel is higher in the pacific
  19. El nino/southern oscllation
    • trade winds weaken
    • ocean equratial current weaken
    • equatorial couinter current strenghten and brinngs warm water to east coast of pacific
  20. result of enso
    • pacific ocean warmer and wetter
    • heavy rains
    • other side of pacific are cool dry air
    • droughts in austrila and south asia
  21. results of enso
    • westerly winds may develope
    • affect tropical atlanticas
    • little huricans due to prevaling winds
  22. La nina
    • occurs when trade winds become stronger then normal
    • ocean equatoral currents strenghts
    • warmer pacific water in the W pacific ocean
  23. results in what
    • cool dry eastern pacific
    • western warm and wet
    • flooding in austrlia and asia
    • huricanes increase in atlantic dure to easterly winds
  24. ENSO and La nina
    consider la nina to be part of the enso cycle
  25. el nino is the
    warm enso phase
  26. la nina is the
    cool enso phase
  27. what present of ocean water moves in currents
  28. what are the driving forces of the surface current
    trade winds and westerlies, lil coriolis effiect
  29. what are gyres
    combination of coriolis effect n content distribution and basin shape large circular surface patterns
  30. Gyres flow what in the north and in the south
    • N clockwize
    • S counterclockwise
  31. how many gyres are there
  32. the north equatorial current flow
    east to west (warm)
  33. gulf stream
    s to n (warm)
  34. north altantic drift
    • w to e (warm)
    • carries warm water toward europe and keep it warm
  35. canaries current
    • flow n to s (cool water)
    • joing N Equatorial current
  36. north atlantic gyre
    warm gulf stream interacts with cold labador to generate fog
  37. the noth atlantic has no
    significant ocean currents (the sargusgo sea)
  38. what warms up great britian and western europe
    north american drift
  39. the western us is colled by
    california current
  40. north pacific gyre collects and traps large amounts of debris
    great pacific garbage patch
  41. most garbage comes from land and is washed overboard how much
    100 million tons
  42. waves can be created how
    • storm winds
    • global winds (trade winds)
    • earthquakes and valcanic eruptions
    • landslides
    • moon gravety
  43. the faster the wind the bigger the wace
    wind speed
  44. the longer the wind blows the greater the wave height
    wind duration
  45. the distance overwater that the wind blows
  46. the point at which wace motion ends
    wave depth
  47. wave depth is how much of a wave lenght
    one half
  48. is determned in part upon the force respinsible for creating the wave
    wave length
  49. if the water depth is greater than wave depth the waves does not inter act with the ocean floor
    deep water waves
  50. it affects the ocean bottom , shallow water begins to swell and become higher and steeper
    shallow water wave
  51. potentally extreme large waves resulting from wave interaction
    rougue waves
  52. for along pycnocline due to storms stron current
    internal waves
  53. alterting rise and fall of water level with no net transport of water or energy
  54. caused by earthquake and landslides
  55. can form anywhere there are 2 substances with differnt densities along with pycnocline
    internal waves
  56. confined space that will slosh back and forth from a storm or landslide
  57. long wavelength generated by due to earthquakes and landslides
  58. initial wavelength of an avg tsunami
    3 ft
  59. are deep long and fast
  60. wave length of a tsunami
    60 to 120 miles
  61. biggest factor of tsunami
    fault motion
  62. rush of water resembling very rapid high tides
    tidal waves
  63. are periodic shorten changes in the height of the ocean surface due to gravitational interactions
  64. has the longest wave length of all waves
  65. two therories on how tides work
    • equilibrium theory- simple model
    • dynamic theory- the more accurate model
  66. what has twice the influence of the sun that affects tides
  67. what is the dominate tide
    lunar tides
  68. two lunar tides buldge are created
    high tides
  69. how many high tides per day
  70. outward force of inertia (centritugal effect)
    one tidal buldge
  71. causes the gravitational pull of the moon
    second tide
  72. how long is a tidal day
    24 hours and 50 min
  73. why does tides for unequally
    moon is not directly over the equator
  74. have higher tides and lower low tides, 2 twice a month, sun and moon in alignment
    sping tides
  75. moon and sun 90 degrees, smaller than normal tidal range , low tydes higher low tides 2wice a month
    neap tides
  76. real tides are longer than the theory sugests
    each ocean basin has its own tidal system
    problems with the equilibrum theory
  77. two relativley equal high tides and two relatively equal low tides
    semidiurnal tides
  78. one high tide and one low tide 12 hrs appart
    divrnal tides
  79. two high tides and two low tides of differnt heights found in pacific and indian oceans
    mixed tides
  80. areas with large ranges in tidal tend to experience strong
    tidal currents
  81. rapid sea level increase due to large incoming high tides
    EBR tides
  82. incoming flood tidal current can overwhel and more upstream against a river current
    tidal bures
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