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How are helicopters classified according to weight (as opposed to numeric) designation and what is the occupancy of each?
- Light: 1-7 people, 0-6000 lbs
- Medium: 8-16 people, 6,001-12,500 lbs
- Heavy: 17+ people, 12, 501 lbs and up
How are helicopters classified according to number designation, and what are the occupancy limits of each?
- Type I: 3 people, 600lb capacity
- Type II: 5 people, 1200 lb capacity
- Type III: 10 people, 2500 lb capacity
- Type IV: 16 people, 5000 lb capacity
What are the operating costs of Fox 1 and Fox 4 (Bell 407 and 206 respectively)?
- Fox 1: $600/hr
- Fox 4: Less than Fox 1
What is the Dead Man's Curve or Coffin Corner?
It is the graph of speed vs altitude the shows where a helicopter can safely perform autorotation.
What is helo pitch?
Nose up or down
What is helo yaw?
Nose left or right
What is the cyclic?
Controls angle of each blade, pitch and roll.
What is the collective?
Lever on the left side of seat, controls lift (throttle)
What are anti-torque pedals?
Control tail rotor and yaw?
What is ground effect?
Flight within 1/2 rotor diameter of ground. Improved performance requiring less power to hover. Related terms IGE and OGE.
What is dynamic rollover?
Happens when center of gravity changes to drastically and helo rolls over and crashes.
What factors contribute to density altitude?
Air temp, pressure, and humidity. High values in any variable decreases performance.
What is translational lift?
Increased lift from horizontal air movement over rotor blades.
What is effective translational lift?
Airspeed above 10-15 knots allows rotors to outrun dirty air.
What is gross weight?
Max certified weight in lbs. which includes max useful load.
What is useful load?
Subtract average equipped weight from gross weight. This is what is left over to be used by passengers and extra equipment.
What is payload?
Subtract equipped weight from gross weight for calm day at 5,000 feet, 80 F, 7400 foot density alt, 2 hours fuel, and pilot
What are ceilings?
IGE and OG thresholds and maximum altitude helo can achieve
What is the cruise speed?
Airspeed in knots. 80% of the do not exceed velocity of helo.
How is fuel consumption measured?
Pounds burned per hour.
What is the weight per gallon of fuel and jet fuel?
6lbs/gallon and 7lbs/gallon respectively
What is the visibility and cloud ceiling limit for safe helicopter flight?
at least 1/2 nautical mile visibility and 500' between ground and lowest cloud during the day.
3NM and 1000' ceiling at night