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keyword Used in the CLI following the command.
Keywords are parameters that are used with the command from a set of predefined values.
kilobits per second
a unit of measurement of the number of times 1000 bits can be transmitted in 1 second. 1 kbps = 1000bps
latency the time that passes while some event occurs.
In networking, latency typically refers to the time that occurs between when something is sent in a network until it is received by another device.
a model that consists of various layers that enable the development and explanation of technology to be done on a modular basis. This allows interoperability among different technologies among the different layers.
a broadcast that is sent to a specific network or series of networks.
limited scope address
An IPv4 multicast address that is restricted to a local group or organization.
an IPv4 address in the range of 169.254.1.0 to 169.254.254.255. Communication using these addresses is used with a ttl of 1 and limited to the local network
local area network
a network created for devices located in a limited geographic area, through which the company owning the LAN has the right to run cables.
locally administered address
a MAC address that can be configured on a device. The LAA can be used in place of the BIA . This means that you can replace a NIC or use a substitute device without changing the address used by the network to access the station.
Logical link control
the IEEE 802.2 standard that defines the upper sublayer of the Ethernet Layer 2 specifications.
a group of devices associated by the arrangement of a hierarchial addressing scheme. Devices in the same logical network that share a common network portion of their Layer 3 addresses.
a map of the devices on a network representing how the devices communcate with each other.
a special reserved IPv4 address, 127.0.0.1 that can be used to test TCP/IP applications. Packets sent to 127.0.0.1 by a computer never leave the computer or even require working NIC. Instead, the packet is processed by IP at the lowest layer and is then sent back up the TCP/IP stack to another application at the same computer
Represents the 0 in the binary number. In an IP subnet mask, the lower-order bits represent the host portion. Sometimes called the host portion of bits.
on a switch, a table that lists all known MAC addresses, and the bridges/switch port out which the bridge/switch should forward frames sent to each MAC address.
Mail user agent
program used to download and send email. Email clients use POP3 to receive emails and use SMTP to send emails. Also called an email client
line code in which each bit of data is signified by at least one voltage level transition.
maximum transmission unit
the largest IP packet size allowed to be sent out a particular interface. Ethernet interfaces default to an MTU of 1500 because the data field of an Ethernet frame should be limited to 1500 bytes, and the IP packet sits inside the ethernet frame's data field.
media access control
the lower of the two sublayers of the IEEE standard for ethernet. It is also the name of that sublayer
the networking layers whose processes are not affected by the media being used. In ethernet, these are all the layers from the LLC sublayer of data link upward.
media-dependent interface (MDI)
The normal operation of ethernet ports on a hub. In this mode, the mapping of the wire pairs in the hub port is in a normal configuration. Some hubs provide a media-dependent interface/media-dependent interface, crossover switch. This switch is usually associated with a particular port. With this switch set correctly, you can connect a network device to the associated port using a straight-through ethernet cable rather than a crossover ethernet cable.
media-dependent interface crossover
MDIX is an alternative operation of ethernet ports on a hub. In this mode, the mapping of the wire pairs used in the hub port is in a crossover configuration. This allows you to use a straight-through cable to interconnect the hub to another hub.
a network with a geographic size between a LAN and a WAN. Typically used by service providers to create a highspeed network in a major metropolitan area where many customers might want high speed services between large sites around a city.
most significant bit
the bit position in a binary number having the greatest value. The most significant bit is sometime referred to as the leftmost bit.
- a member of a multicast group. Every multicast client in each group has the same IP address. Multicast addresses begin with 224.*.*.* and end with 239.*.*.*
- multicast group a group that receives a multicast transmission. The members of a multicast group have the same mulitcast IP addressing to receive the same transmission.
a process where multiple digital data streams are combined into one signal.
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