CCNA Vocabulary_Q_R_S.txt

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  1. quality of service
    a control mechanism that can provide different priorities to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the application program.
  2. query
    a request for information. Queries are answered with replies.
  3. radio frequency interference
    radio frequencies that creat noise that interferes with information being transmitted across unshielded copper cabling.
  4. radix
    the number of various unique digits, including 0 that a positional number system uses to represent numbers. For example, in the binary system (base 2) the radix is 2. In the decimal system the radix is 10.
  5. redundancy
    a network architecture designed to eliminate network downtime cause by a single point of failure.
  6. Regional Internet Registries
    • organizations that are responsible for the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world. These registries include the American Registry for Internet Number for North America;
    • RIPE network coordination center for Europe, the middle east and central asia;
    • Asia-pacific network information centre for asia and the Pacific region;
    • Latin american and Carribean Internet Address registry for Latin America and the Carribean region;
    • and African Network Information Centre for Africa.
  7. registered ports
    using values between 1024 and 49,151 these numbers are equivalent to well-known ports in concept, but they are specifically used for nonprivileged application processes.
  8. Requests for Comments
    a series of documents and memoranda encompassing new research, innovations and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. RFCs are a reference for how technologies should work.
  9. reserved link-local addresses
    the IPv4 multicast addresses to These addresses are to be used for multicast groups on a local network. Packets to these destinations are always transmitted with a TTTL value of 1
  10. resource records
    DNS data records. Their precise format is defined in RFC 1035. The most important fields in a resource record are Name, class, type and data.
  11. RJ-45
    a rectangular cabling connector with eight pins, often used with ethernet cables.
  12. round-trip time
    the time required for some network pdu's to be sent and received, and a response PDU to be sent and received. In other words, the time between when a device sends data and when the same device receives a response.
  13. router
    path through an internetwork through which packets are forwarded.
  14. router
    a network device, typically connected to a range of LAN and WAN interfaces, that forwards packets based on their destination IP addresses.
  15. routing
    the process by which a router receives an incoming frame, discards the ata link header and trailer, makes a forwarding decision based on the destination IP address, adds a new data-link header and trailer based on the outgoing interface and forward the new frame out the outgoing interface.
  16. router protocol
    a protocol used between routers so that they can learn routes to add to their routing tables.
  17. routing table
    a list of router holds in memory for the purpose of deciding how to forward packets.
  18. RST
    a 1-bit flag in the TCP header that is used to request that a connection be re-established.
  19. runt frame
    an ethernet frame that is less than 64 bytes in size. Runts are caused by collisions and are also know as collision fragments
  20. scalability
    the ability of a protocol. system or component to be modified to fit a new need.
  21. scheme
    a plan, design or program of action to be followed. Sometimes an addressing plan is called an addressing SCHEME.
  22. scope
    the extent of a certain item. For example, an address scope is also known as a range of addresses from beginning of the range to the end.
  23. segment
    • 1. a collision domain that is a section of a LAN that is bound by bridges, routers or switches.
    • 2. In a LAN using a bus topology, a segment is a continuous electrical circuit that is often connected to other such segments with repeaters.
    • 3. When used with TCP, the term segment refers to the work TCP does to accept a large piece of data from an application and break it into smaller pieces. Again with TCP, used as a noun, segment refers to one of those smaller pieces of data.
  24. segmentation
    In TCP, the process of taking a large chunk of data and breaking it into small enough pieces to fit within a TCP segment without breaking any rules about the maximum amount of data allowed in a segment.
  25. selective forwarding
    the forwarding of packets where the forwarding decision is taken dynamically, hop by hop, based on the conditions of downstream fowrading nodes.
  26. server
    can refer to computer hardware that is to be used by multiple concurrent users. Alternatively, this term can refer to computer software that provides services to many users. For example, a web server consists of web server software running on some computer.
  27. server message block
    an application level network protocl mainly applied to shared access to files, printers, serial ports, and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.
  28. session
    a related set of communications transactions between two or more network devices.
  29. shielded twisted pair cable
    a type of network cabling that includes twisted-pair wires, with shielding around each pair of wires, as well as another shield around all wires in the cable.
  30. signal
    the optical or electrical impulse on a physical medium for purposes of communication.
  31. smtp
    an application protocol typically not used by end users. Instead, it is used by the network management software and networking devices to allow a network engineer to monitor and troubleshoot network problems.
  32. single point of failure
    a system of network design characterized by one or more major components that are required to maintain operation.
  33. slash format
    a method of expressing a network prefix. It uses a forward slash / followed by the network prefix.
  34. slot time
    the minimum time a NIC or interface can take to send an entire frame. Slot time, then, implies a minimum frame size.
  35. source
    the origin of the PDU. This can be a process a host or a node, depending on the layer to which you are reffering.
  36. source IP address
    the IP address of the originating host that is placed into the IP packet header.
  37. standards
    an internationally recognized definition of technical specifications that ensure worldwide consistency.
  38. static route
    an entry in an IP routing table that was created because a network engineer entered the routing information into the router's configuration.
  39. store and forward
    a method of internal processing by LAN switches. The switch must receive the entire frame before it sends the first bit of the frame. Store and forward switch is the method used by cisco switches.
  40. subnet
    a group of IP addresses that have the same value in the first part of the IP addresses, for the purpose of allowing routing to identify the group by the inital part of the addresses. IP addresses in the same subnet typically sit on the same network medium and are not separated from each other by any routers. IP addresses on different subnets are typically separated from one another by at least one router. Subnet is short for subnetwork.
  41. subnet mask
    a dotted decimal number that helps identify the structure of IP addresses. The mask represents the network and subnet parts of related IP addresses with binary 1s and the host part of related IP addresses with binary 0s
  42. switch
    In ethernet a layer 2 device that receives an electrical signal in one port, interprets the bits, and makes a filtering or forwarding decision about the frame. If it forward, it sends a regenerated signal. Switches typically have many physical ports, often times RJ-45 jacks, whereas bridges traditionally have two ports.
  43. switch table
    the table used by a switch that associates MAC addresses with the outgoing port. A general term for the table that a LAN bridge uses for its forwarding/filtering decisions. The table holds a list of MAC addresses and the port out which the bridge should forward frames for those frames to reach the correct destination. Also called a CAM table when referring to the switch table on Cisco LAN switches.
  44. symmetric switching
    In LAN switches a reference to cases in which a frame is forwarded, or switche, when the incoming and outgoing interfaces use the same speed. It is the opposite of asymmetric switching.
  45. SYN
    a 1-bt flag in the TCP header used to indicate the initial value of the sequence number. The SYN flag is only set in the first two segments of the three-way TCP connection establishment sequence.
  46. synchronous
    Communication that uses a common clocking signal. In most synchronous communicatino, one of the communicating devices generates a clock signal into the circuit. Additional timing information is not required in the header.
  47. syntax
    the structure and order of words in a computer language
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CCNA Vocabulary_Q_R_S.txt
2011-07-12 15:23:00
CCNA Vocab

CCNA Vocab Q
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