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a layer 4 protocl of TCP/IP model, TCP lets applications guarantee delivery of data across a network.
a network model defined by the IETF that has been implemented on most computers and network device in the world.
the IPv4 address block 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 that is set aside for teaching and learning purposes. These addresses can be used in documentation and network examples.
a common term for 10base5 ethernet, referring to the fact that 10base5 cabling is thicker than the coaxial cabling used for 10base2.
a common term for 10base2 ethernet, referring to the fact that 10base2 cabling is thinner than coaxial cabling used for 10base5
the actual data transfer rate between two computers at some point in time. Throughput is impacted by the slowest-speed link used to send data between the two computers, as well as myriad variables that might change during the course of a day.
Time to live
a field in the IP header that prevents a packet form indefinitely looping around an IP internetwork. Router decrements the TTL field each time they forward a packet, and if they decrement the TTL to 0, the router discards the packet, which prevents it from looping forever.
an access method used with some LAN technologies by which devices access the media in a controlled manner. This access to the LAN is managed using a small frame called a toke. A device can send only when it has claimed the use of the token.
a command on many computer operating systems that discovers the IP addresses, and possibly host names, of the routers used by the network when sending a packet from one computer to another.
the learning of source addresses on incoming frames and adding them to the bridging table. After the table has been completed and when a frame is received on one of the bridge's interfaces, the bridge looks up the frame's destination address in its bridging table, and the frame is forwarded out the indicated port.
a general type of cable, with the cable holding twisted pairs of copper wires and the cable itself having little shielding.
a 1-bit flag in the TCP header used to indicate that the receiving host should notify the destination process to do urgent processing.
user executive mode
the limited CLI mode where the commands available to the user are a subset of those available at the privileged level. In general, use the user Exec commands to temporarily change terminal settings, perform basic tests and list system information.
a logical connection between devices in which the frames are passed between the devices. Virtual circuits are independent of the physical structure and may be established through multiple physical devices.
virtual local area network
a network of computers that behave as if they are connected to the same network segment, even through they might be physically located on different segments of a LAN. VLANs are configured through software on the switch and router.
virtual terminal line
the reference to text based logical interfaces on an ios device. These are accesses using telnet or ssh to perform administrative tasks. VTY lines are also called virtual type terminal.
well known ports
used by tcp or udp, with values between 0 and 1023, these ports are allocated by high-privilege processes. They are used so that all clients know the correct port number to connect to.
as filed in the TCP header that is set in a sent segment, signifies the maximum amount of unacknowledged data the host is willing to receive before the other sending host must wait for an acknowledgment.
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