Unit 4 Drugs guide

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face12
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Unit 4 Drugs guide
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2011-07-13 13:25:11
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santana acc pharmacology
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Unit 4's study guide
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  1. What are the drugs that treat CHF?
    Amrinone, Digoxin, Dobutamine, Enalapril, Furosemide, Hydralazine, Hydrochlorothia, Lisinopril, Metoprolol, Propranolol, Spironolactone, Triamterene
  2. What are the Drugs that treat Arrhythmia?
    Adenosine, Amiodarone, Diltiazem, Lidocaine, Metroprolol, Nifedipine, Nitroglycerin, Propranolol, Quinidine, Sotalol, Verapamil,
  3. What are the drugs that treat Angina P?
    Diltiazem, Metroprolol, Nifedipine, Nitroglycerin, Propranolol, Verapamil
  4. What are the drugs that treat HTN?
    Candesartan, Diltiazem, Enalapril, Furosemide, Hydralazine, Hydrochlorothia, Lisinopril, Losartan, Metoprolol, Nifedipine, Propranolol, Spironolactone, Triamterene, Verapamil, Nitropruside, Tekturna, Diazoxide
  5. What drugs treat MI (Mycardial Infarction) (Heart Attack)?
    Alteplace, Aspirin, Aspirin/Dypyrid amole, Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Enalapril, Enoxaprin, Fluvastatin, Heparin, Lidocaine, Lisinopril, Metroprolol, Nicontinic Acid, Nitroglycerin, Propranolol, Simvastatin, Streptokinase, Warfarin, Nitropruside
  6. What drugs treat anemias?
    Folic acid, Vitamin B12, Iron
  7. What drugs treat coagulants?
    Protamine Sulphate, Vitamin K
  8. What drugs treat High Cholesterol?
    Cholestyramine, Colestipol, Fluvastatin, Nicotinic Acid, Simvastatin
  9. What are the 3 important dysfunctions of the heart?
    • Thrombosis-Formation of unwanted clot
    • Bleeding disorders-failure of homeostasis
    • Amemias-RBC's or hemoglobin is low
  10. what is coagulation?
    normal blood clot formation
  11. What is aggregation?
    platelet activity; sticking together
  12. What is hemostasis?
    • body's way of stopping injured blood vessels in 3 processes
    • -constriction of the vessel
    • -activity of the platelets (aggregation)
    • -activity of the blood clotting factors (proteins in the the plasma)
  13. What controls blood pressure?
    Sympathetic system and kidneys
  14. If the heart pumps with more force, what happens to arteries?
    arterial pressure increases putting out more fluid each second
  15. Vasoconstriction leads to a...
    increase in blood pressure
  16. what are the 2 approaches in therapy strategies of hypertension?
    • Stepped approach: start with one and add as needed
    • Sequential approach: start with one, if ineffective then stop and give another
  17. What is the commonly the first drug group given in HTN?
    Thiazide Diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide)
  18. What are the four treatment Methods of arrhythmias?
    • Pacemaker
    • Surgery
    • Cardioversion(electric shock,difibrillator)
    • Antiarrhythmic drugs
  19. Amrinone
    • Class: B-adrenergic agonist
    • MOA: inhibits phosphodiesteras enzyme
    • Therapeutic use: CHF
    • Side effects: arrhythmia
  20. Digoxin (Lanoxin)
    • Class: Cardiac Glycoside(Digitalis Toxicity)
    • MOA: elevates calcium levels which increase force of contraction
    • Therapeutic Use: Treats CHF
    • Side effects: Cardia Dysrhithmias, GI Effects, CNS
    • Note: Electrolye disturbances like hypokalemia and other drug interactions can predispose a patient to Digitalis Toxicity
  21. Dobutamine
    • Class: Adrenergic Agonist
    • MOA:bind to adrenergic receptor B1
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF
  22. Enalapril
    • Class: Vasodilators-ACE INHIBITOR
    • MOA: blocks potent vasoconstricting enzyme that converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN, MI
    • Side Effects: postural hypotension, dry cough, hyperkalemia, renal insufficiency
    • Note: Drug of choice with along with Lisinopril
  23. Furosemide(Lasix)
    • Class: Diuretic
    • MOA: lowers Na+, K+, CL- in henle loop by inhibiting active transport proteins
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN
    • Side effects: Cardiac Arrythhmias, Hypokalemia, Hypotension
  24. Hydrochlorothiazide
    • Class: Diuretic for thiazidee
    • MOA: lowers reabsorption of Na+ in DISTAL Tubule
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN
    • Side effects: Hypkalemia, arrhythmias, hypotension
  25. Hydralazine(Apresoline)
    • Class: Vasodilator
    • MOA:directly relaxes smooth muscle which results in lower vascular resistance and blood pressure
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN
    • Side effects: postural hypotension, dry cough, renal insufficiency
  26. Lisinopril
    • Class: Vasodilators-ACE INHIBITOR
    • MOA: blocks potent vasoconstricting enzyme that converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN, MI
    • Side Effects: postural hypotension, dry cough, hyperkalemia, renal insufficiency
    • Note: Drug of choice with along with Enalapril
  27. Metroprolol
    • Class: beta adrenergic antagonist
    • MOA: blocks beta1 receptors on Sympathetic nerves
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF,Arrhythmia, Angina P, HTN, MI
    • Side effects: hypotension, bradycardia
  28. Propranolol
    • Class: beta adrenergic antagonist
    • MOA: blocks beta1& 2 receptors on Sympathetic nerves
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF,Arrhythmia, Angina P, HTN, MI
    • Side effects: hypotension, bradycardia
  29. Spironolactone (Aldactone)
    • Class: Diuretic (Potassium Sparing)
    • MOA: aldasterone antagonist that works at collecting duct
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN
    • Side effects: Hypokalemia, arrhythmias, hypotension
  30. Triameterene
    • Class: Diuretic (Potassium Sparing)
    • MOA: aldasterone antagonist that works in combo with spironolactone to block sodium channels
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, HTN
    • Side effects: Hypokalemia, arrhythmias, hypotension
  31. Diazoxide(Hyperstat)
    • Class: Direct Acting Vasodilator
    • MOA: opens veins to lower blood pressure
    • Therapeutic Use: CHF, Malignant HTN
    • Note: administered intravenously
  32. Adenosine
    • Class: antiarrhythmic
    • MOA: decreases av conduction which slows the rate of the ventricles
    • Therapeautic Use: Acute Supraventricular Tachycardia-fast heart rate that originates above the ventricles
    • Side effects:none said
    • Note:
    • 1. natruraly occurinng metabolite of ATP
    • 2. administered by IV during emergencies
    • 3. lasts 15-30 seconds
  33. Amiodarone
    • Class: Antiarrhythmic
    • MOA: Prolongs action potentially blockage of potassium outward current
    • Therapeutic Use: Acute ventricular Tachycardia
  34. Diltiazem(Cardizem)
    • Class: Calcium Channel blocker
    • MOA: causes a decrease in slow calcium influx that triggers cardiac contraction, wich inturn slows conduction
    • Therapeutic Uses: Arrhythmia, Angina P, HTN
    • Side effects: dizziness, fatigue, contraindicated in patients with depressed cardiac function
    • Note: Primarily used in Atrial Flutter
  35. Lidocaine (Xylocaine)
    • Class: Antiarrhythmic-Calcium Channel Blocker
    • MOA: blocks during phase 3(repolarization). Depresses automaticity
    • Therapeutic Use: Acute ventricular tachycardia as well as MI
    • Note: Drug of Choice but major disadvantage is that it must be administered parenterally
  36. Nitroglycerin
    • Class: Antianginal-organic nitrates
    • MOA: relax vascular smooth muscle by nitrate ions being converted to nitrous oxide
    • Therapeutic Uses: 1. Sublingually during angina attack for chest pain. 2. Prophylactically to prevent angina attacks
    • Side Effects: flushing, dizziness, weakness, fainting
  37. Candesartan & Losartan
    • Class: Angiotensin 2 Antagonists
    • MOA: selective angiotensin 2 receptor blockade, leads to vasodilation and diminished
    • Therapeutic Use: HTN
    • Side effects:postural hypotension, hyperkalemia, renal insufficiency
  38. Nitropruside
    • Class: Direct acting vasodilator
    • MOA: opens veins to lower blood pressure
    • Therapeutic Use: HTN, MI
    • Note: administered intravenously
  39. Tekturna
    • Class: renin inhibitor
    • Therapeutic Use: Hypertension
  40. Alteplase & Streptokinase
    • Class: Thrombolytic Drugs
    • MOA:activate the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, which hydrolyzes fibrin and thus dissolves clots
    • Therapeutic use: MI
    • Side effects: Bleeding disorders, hypersinsitivities
  41. Aspirin
    • Class: Platelet inhibitor
    • MOA: decrease the formation or the action of chemical signals that promote platelet aggregation
    • Therapeutic Use: prophylactic treatment to reduce the incidence of a stroke and recurrent myocardial infarction
    • Side Effects: bleeding time is prolonged, gi disturbance
  42. Aspirirn/Dypyridamole(Agrrenox)
    • Class: Platelet Inhibitors
    • MOA: additive antiplatelet agent
    • Therapeutic Use: prophylactic treatment to reduce th incidence of a stroke and recurrent myocardial infarction
    • Side Effects: bleeding time is prolonged gi disturbance
  43. Cholestyramine(Questran) & Colestipol(Colestid)
    • Class: Anti hyperlipidemia (High Cholesterol)
    • MOA: Binds bile acids in the intestine;enhances LDL removal
    • Therapeutic Use: High Cholesterol and MI
    • Side effects: Constipation, flatulence, nausea, impaired absorption of fat soluble vitamins
  44. Enoxaprin (Lovenox) & Heparin
    • Class: Anticoagulant
    • MOA: prevent blood coagulation by either preventing thrombin formation(Heparin) or by antagonizing the cofactor functions of vitamin K (Warfarin)
    • Therapeutic: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Pulmonar Embolism, Prophylactic
    • Note: 1) administered IV and SubQ only with Speedy onse
    • 2) PTT is coagulation test
    • 3) Enoxaprin is a low weight heparin
  45. Nicotinic Acid
    • Class: Antihyperlipidemic
    • MOA: reduces the rate of VLDL production of liver
    • Side effects: facial flushing, exacerbation of gout, diabetes
    • Therapeutic Use: High Cholesterol & MI
  46. Simvastatin(Zocor) & Fluvastatin (Lescol)
    • Class: Antihyperlipidemic-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitors
    • MOA: Block synthesis of cholesterol by blocking the enzyme that controls cholesterol production
    • Side effects: fatigue, nausea, myopathy, liver abnormalities
    • Therapeutic use: High Cholesterol & MI
  47. Folic Acid
    • Class: anti anemia
    • MOA: increases folic acid necessary during pregnancy, alcoholism
    • Therapeutic use: anemia
    • Note: works with methotrexate and trimethoprim
  48. Iron
    • Class: anti anemia
    • MOA: increases iron for acut or chronic blood loss. It happens during periods of accelerated growth in children or heavy menstruating women
    • Therapeutic use: anemia
  49. Vitamin B12
    • Class: anti anemia
    • MOA: helps increase b12
    • Therapeutic Use B12 deficiency, pernicious anemia
    • Note: administered orally for dietary deficiency
  50. Protamine sulphate & Vitamin K
    • Class: Coagulant
    • Therapeutic Uses: Helps clot formation in newborns, control bleeding during surgeries, hemophilia

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