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- Culturally diverse from the rest of asia.
- "Shatterbelt" region traditionally influenced by greater India and China.
- More Indian then Chinese.
Physical Geography of MSEA
- Alluvial river (rich, organic sentiments from rivers) separated by linear mountain ridges, geologically stable. (No earthquakes and the like)
- Series of ridges and valleys.
Physical Geography of ISEA
- Coastal plains, with volcanoes/mountains along tectonic plate margins.
- Indonesia and the Philippines.
- 2004 Asian Tsunami
- Tsunami is male specific because men went fishing so they were safe. Women stay on shore get hit by the wave. Little boys can get out of the way by climbing trees.
Climate of MSEA
- Distinct wet and dry monsoon
- Water Festival.
Climate of ISEA
- Less distinct because of maritime conditions
- Closer to the equator so you’re not going to have these huge differences. ITCZ- 10 degrees north and south of the equator.
- Depends on the island you’re talking about.
- Typhoons/cyclones only at regional edges.
MSEA Pre-Colonial Civilizations
- Riverine agrarian empires
- River agriculture.
- Hindu influenced Khmer Empire centered on Angkor (800-1300 AD)
- Interior agricultural based empires who’s agricultural surplus is the wealth of the empire.
ISEA Pre-Colonial Civilizations
- Many coastal trading empires except Jawa associated with the arrival of Islam (1400-1700 AD)
- Melaka as an “entrepot” engaged in controlling commerce in exotic products.
Majapahit on Jawa
- An agrarian empire based on rich volcanic soils.
- It’s primary source of power rested on the agriculture.
- Borobudur Temple Complex
Religion in MSEA
Indian influenced Buddhism.
Religion in ISEA
Islamic, except Hindu Bali, and Roman Catholic Philippines and East Timor.
Resource extraction economies, primarily plantation crops, tin and oil.
- Tea in Malaysia
- Tobacco in Indonesia
- Rubber in Malaysia
- Gold Mining in Philippines.
- Tin Mining in Malaysia
Chinese to function as laborers who eventually became “middlemen” in the colonial economy.
Least discrimination- Thailand and Philippines-reasons?
Because they resemble Thai’s physically. They changed their names to Thai names
Creation of “dual” and “enclave” economies
- When a country possesses a dual economy it means that it has a traditional sector and a modern sector.
- Traditional: rice, herding animals. Informal sector.
- An enclave economy is one in which with little integration with the rest of the economy.
- You could have a modern factory that has very little linkage with the rest of the economy. It could have great linkages with a foreign country.
Modern Economic Development
- Rapid industrial growth among original ASEAN states.
- Capital rich and resource poor East Asian countries invest in resource rich and labor abundant ASEAN countries.
- Requirement of political stability
- Modified Japanese “state capitalism” model.
- In which the state has a very strong influence on the leading industries of a country.
Colonial legacy of modern core-periphery relationship in Indonesia.
- Manufacturing and resource exploitation. Changing nature of domestic colonialism
Deforestation and Development
The most degraded rain forest in the world.
Reasons for rapid forest loss
- World Bank gives advice in the 1960s to generate export earnings from raw logs.
- Growth of domestic word industries to add value to raw logs.
- Growth of export oriented oil palm plantations.
- Corrupt politicians grant logging concessions to domestic logging firms.
- More ethnically/religiously diverse
- More secular and democratic institutions allows for civic airing of grievances
- Religion does not play a critical role in culture
- More elevated role of women