Basic Mycology

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Basic Mycology
2011-07-12 22:31:35
basic mycology

basic mycology
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  1. Fungi Cell wall is made of
    Chitin, Mannan, Glucan
  2. Fungi Cell membrane is made of
    Sterol Ergosterol
  3. fungi capsule is made of
    Mannan and glucan polysaccharides
  4. fungi reproduce by
    sexual and asexual spores
  5. Some Fungi have the ability to form dfferent structures in different tempuratures(e.g. spores outside body and yesast inside) this is called
    thermal dimorphism
  6. obligate aerobes, faculative anaerobes, obligate anaerobes which one does fungi not exhibit?
    Obligate anaerobes
  7. fungi are eukaryotes or prokarytoes
  8. prokaryotic, peptidoglycan cell wall, sterol absent cell membrane(mycoplasma), polysaccharide capsule, endospores for survival, no thermal dimorphism are charecteristic of
  9. unicellular and multiply by budding
  10. Cryptococcus species, and Candida species are
  11. some buds(blastoconidia) elongate to form
    pseudohyphae (resemble hyphae)
  12. molds structe are
    multicellular filamentous
  13. branched filaments are called
  14. hyphae can be divided into partitions called
    septate or aseptate
  15. fungi exist as yeast in tissues at
    37 degrees C
  16. Fungi exist as Mold or filamentous forms at
    room temp 25 degrees celcius
  17. asexual spores are the
    conidia (macro and micro) and sporangiospores
  18. shape color and arrangment of conidia aid in
    identification of the fungi
  19. conidia are formed
    externally on structures called conidiophores
  20. rectangular spores which arise from fragmentation of hyphae e.g. coccidoides immitis are
  21. round thick spores produced by candida albicans
  22. buds of yeasts which sometimes do not detach and form long sausage shaped false hyphae; pseudohyphae
  23. RHIZOPUS, MUCOR reproduce by
    sporangiospores which are produced internally within sporangium
  24. most fungi attach to host cell receptors by
  25. fungal pathogenesis act via fungal toxins and
  26. epithelial turnover, fatty acid content, ph of skin, normal bacterial flora, ph MUCOSAL SURFACE, cilia and macrophages of the mucous membranes of nasopharynx, innate immunity are
    host resistance to fungal infection
  27. host response to systemic fungal infections result in a
  28. inflammatory cell infiltrate and macrophages that phagocyte fungi, in a localised nodule that acts to contain the infection is a
  29. key determinant in protection from fungal infection
    T- Cell mediated immunity
  30. severe fungal infections is due to
    compromised cell mediated immunity
  31. activation of t cell mediated immune results in
    delayted type hypersensitivity to fungal antigens
  32. normal skin mediated immune response determined by
    candida skin tests
  33. acute suppuration characterised by the precense of neutrophils seen in infections like
    sporotrichosis, aspergillosis
  34. mycoses(fungal infection) phagocytosis by
  35. polysaccharide capsules of fungi (e.g. cryptococcus) is
  36. conditions conducive to fungal infections
    disruptions of bodies physical chemical or physiologic barriers, immunosupression : loss od CD4 TH1 response, disruption of normal bacterial flora
  37. immunosupression : loss of CD4 TH1 response, leads to oppurtunistic infections by normal flora such as
    candida albicans
  38. immunosupression: loss of CD4 TH1 response leads to susceptibility to environmental fungi such as
  39. disruption of normal bacterial flora happens via
    antibiotics, radiation
  40. mycoses which involves the keratinised outermost layers of skin hair and nails
    superficial mycoses
  41. mycoses which involve the keratin layer of epidermis and deeper layers of skin hair and nails
    cutaneous mycoses
  42. mycoses which involve dermis subcutaneous tissues, muscels and fascio
    subcutaneous mycoses
  43. mycoses disseminated infections
    systemic mycoses
  44. mycoses generally occur in patients with compromised immune systems(chemotherapy), HIV infected individual
    oppurtunistic mycoses
  45. polyenes are
    amphotericin B, nystain
  46. binds to ergosterol, disrupts fungal membranes by punching holes in cytoplasmic membrane
    Polyenes (amphotericin B, and nystain)
  47. polyenes used to fight
    systemic mycoses, oppurtunistic mycoses, oral thrush
  48. Azole derivatives
    miconazole, clotrimazole(topical), ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole
  49. inhibit fungal ergosterol synthesis by binding to p450 enzymes (cytoplasmic membrane)
    azole derivatives
  50. used to fight systemic and oppurtunistic mycoses
    azole derivatives
  51. Allylamines
  52. inhibits ergosterol synthesis via squalene epoxidase
    allylamines( terbinafine)
  53. allylamines(terbinafine) used to treat
    systemic & topical for dermatophytes
  54. nucleoside synthesis disruption via a nucleoside analog called
  55. inhibits dna and rna synthesis, covnerted to fluoracil and acts as an antimetabolite
    nucleoside analog flucytosine
  56. nucleoside analog flucytosine used to treat
    cryptococcus candida
  57. echinocandins are
    caspofungin, micafungin
  58. inhibits glucan synthesis (cell wall synthesis)
    echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin)
  59. echniocandins (caspofungin & mycofungin) used to treat
    candida and aspergillus
  60. other - inhibits fungal mitosis by interacting with microtubules, deposits in nails
    grisans, griseofulvin
  61. grisans griseofulvis used to treat
    cutaneous mycoses not responding to topical antifungal
  62. other- potassium iodide used to treat
    therapeutic sporotrichosis