Test 1

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amonsivaiz
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93841
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Test 1
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2011-07-12 23:13:30
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Lifespan Development
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Chapters 1-7
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  1. 5 characteristics of life span perspective
    multidirectional- changes in q direction, gain/loss, predictible/unexpected evident or butterfly effect which is one direction

    multicontextual- lives embedded in many contexts (historical conditions, economic constraints, & family patterns)

    multicultural- many cultures (affecting developement)

    multidisiciplinary- many academic fields (ex psychology, biology)

    plasticity- q individual & q trait w/i q ppl, & can b altered @ any point, ongoing, not random or easy
  2. what is cohort
    ppl born @ da same time & go thru life 2gether, having same historical event & cultural shifts
  3. what is socioecnomic status (SES)
    peeps position in society (wealth, occupation, education, residence)

    middle class- delay of gratification

    low SES- immediate gratification
  4. what is culture
    patterns of behaviors from generation 2 generation

    • explicit- laws
    • implicit- more customary way
  5. what is the difference between race & ethnic group? (definition)
    race- groups of peeps categorized by appearance

    ethnic- share certain attributes (origin, religion, cultural, language)
  6. science
    using scientific method

    • objective vs subjective
    • unemotional vs emotional
    • unbias vs bias
    • systemic vs random
  7. what is plasticity?
    why does it provide us w/ hope?
    • 2 complementary aspects of development
    • human traits could be changed/molded while maintaining durabilityof identity (like plastic)
    • culture & upbringing affects both aspects of plasticity

    • provides hope & realism
    • hope- b/c change is possible
    • realism- b/c each person must build on what has come before
  8. 5 basic steps of the scientific method
    • 1. ask ?- whether on previous research, theory, personal observation
    • 2. develop hypothesis- predict outcome from?
    • 3. test hypothesis- interpret, analyze data
    • 4. draw conclusion- whether prove/ disprove
    • 5. make findings available- publish so that it could be replicated
  9. how to test hypothesis
    • observation- either lab or natural setting
    • experiments- determining cause & effect between 2 variables by changing one (independent) & observing & recording the changes in other (dependent)
    • survey- info collected large # of peeps by interview, ?s
    • case studies- 1 person studied intensively
  10. what is correlation?
    does it indicate that 1 varieble causes another?
    • correlation- exist between 2 variables
    • positive if both increase/decrease 2gether
    • negative if 1 increase & other decreases
    • zero if no connection seen

    itz not indication that 1 causes other only that they are related to a degree
  11. what is cross sectional research & itz drawbacks
    • research dat compares peeps dat differ in age but are similar in characteristic (edu., SES, ethnicity)
    • most common, convenient
    • drawbacks- hard 2 ensure that peeps r similar in q variable except age, & historical change may affect 1 cohort more then other
  12. what is longtitudinal research & itz drawbacks
    • same peeps r followed over time & their development is repeatedly assessed
    • drawbacks- peeps may move away or die, peeps w/ low SES or w/ serious illness less likely to stay involved, & peeps become familier w/ ?s or goals of study so they dont change normaly, b/c research takes long it could harm peeps living now
  13. what is cross-sequential research
    (cohort-sequential research or time sequential research)
    using both cross-sectional 1st & then longitudinal

    it allows scientist to disentangle differences rt chronological age from those rt historical period
  14. Multidisciplinary
    3 domains
    • all part of dynamic system dat make up a person:
    • biosocial development- all growth & changes dat occur in human body
    • cognative development- all mental process
    • psychosocial development- emotions, temper, & social
  15. ? are grand theories
    psychoanalytic, behaviorist, & cognative all grand theories b/c dey describe universal process & development thruout life

    they offer framework for interpreting & understanding change & development of peeps

    u have to have hypothesis 2 do research & u get hypothesis from theories
  16. ? are minitheories
    only about some part of development, like one age or one domain
  17. ? are emergent theories
    theories that bring 2gether info many disciplines, they become the new systemic & comprehensive theories of the future
  18. ? is psychoanalytic theory
    theory of human development that holds irrational, unconscious drives & motives often from childhood
  19. frued stages (psychosexual)
    • birth-1yr- oral stage- lips, gums, tongue is the focus- feeding, suckin
    • 1-3yr- anal stage- anus is the focus- toilet trainin
    • 3-6yr-phallic stage- phallus, penis is the focus- genital stimulation, boys proud of penis & girls wonder why they dont have 1
    • 6-11yr- latency(not really a stage)- sexual needs quiet & children put all their energy in school & sports
    • adolescence- genital stage- genital are the focus- they seek sexual stimulaiton/satisfaction
    • adulthood- freud said that genital stage last thru adulthood & stated that the goal of healthy life is 2 "love & work"
  20. eriksons stages (psychosocial)
    • trust vs mistrust- babies trust der needs will b met/unmet
    • autonomy vs shame/doubt- kids will be selfsuficient in activities or doubt their abilities
    • initiative vs guilt- kids want 2 do adult things or fear limits by parents & feel guilty
    • industry vs inferiority- kids learn b competent/productive in mastering new skilld or cant do anything
    • identity vs role confusion- adolescents try 2 figure who they r
    • intimacy vs isolation- young adults seek campanion/love or isolate self
    • generativity vs stagnation- middle age adults contribute 2 next generation thru work activities family or dey stagnate
    • integrity vs despair- elders try 2 make sense of their lives, either meaningfull or goals never reached
  21. ? is behaviorism
    grand theory- observes behavior, aka- learning theory b/c it describes laws & process by which behavior is learned
  22. specific laws of learning
    • conditioning- process where responses become linked to stimuli
    • classical conditioning- connects meaningful stimuli(smell of food) w/ neutral stimuli(sound of bell) w/ no meaning before conditioning
    • operant conditioning- action followed by somethin desired then more likely to repeat action
    • reinforcement- any consequence dat follows behavior & makes person likely to repeat behavior
  23. ? is social learning
    we learn by observing others, or by modeling
  24. ? is cognative theory
    (grand theory)
    how peeps think over time, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, & behaviors
  25. ? is cognative equilibrium
    state of mental balance, peeps not confused b/c they use their existing thought process 2 understand current expiriences & ideas
  26. 2 processes/adaption thru which peeps try 2 maintain cognative equilibrium
    • assimilation- reinterpret & use existing knowledge
    • accomodation- change or reramp existing knowledge
    • accommodation require more mental energy, but sometimes necessary b/c new ideas/expiriences may not fit into existing cognative structures
  27. in socialcultural theory, ? is guided participation?
    ? is da zone of proximal development
    • socialcultural- development from dynamic interaction between developing peeps & their surroundings
    • guided participation- skilled mentors help novices learn not only by instuction but also by involvment
    • zone of proximal- skills, knowlegde, & concepts dat da learner is close 2 get but cant master w/o help
  28. ? is epigenetic theory
    that development is genetics behaviors & direct systemic influence that enviromental forces have, over time on genes
  29. ? is the nature-nurture controversy
    • nature- genes that we inherit
    • nurture- enviromental influences, start @ prenatal- lifelong
  30. gamete
    reproductive cell has 23 chromosones, either sprem or ovum that can produce another person when in contact w/ another gamete to make an zygote
  31. zygote
    single cell formed from the fusing of 2 gametes, a sperm & an ovum
  32. genotype vs phenotype
    • genotype- entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential
    • (when sperm & ovum create zygote they become a genotype)

    phenotype- observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, & all other traits
  33. monozygotic twins vs dizygotic twins
    • monozygotic twins- identical, from one zygote dat splits apart early in development (triplets, quads)
    • diz
  34. polygenic
    traits that are influenced by many genes
  35. dominant gene vs recessive gene
    interaction of pair of alleles so that the phenotype reveals influence of 1 (dominant) more then other (recessive)
  36. XX vs XY:
    ? are their prenatal method of genetic testing
    • XX- female
    • XY- male
  37. alpha-fetoprotein assay
    mother's blood tested 4 alpha-fetoprotien (AFP) level, done mid pregn., often w/ other blood test & repeat sonogram

    indicates neural defects, multiple embryos(both cause high AFP), or down syndrome(low AFP), normal levels change each wk , interpretation req. accurate dating of conception
  38. amniocentesis
    1/2oz of fluid inside placenta withdrawn (via sonogram & syringe)@ about 16wk, 4 culture & analyzed

    • spontaneouse abortion caused by syring (.05%)
    • detects chromosomal abnormalities & other genetic & prenatal problems
    • fluid shows sex of baby
    • done later in pregn. then other test, take 1wk 4 results
  39. difference between germinal period vs embryonic period vs the fetal period
    germinal- 2wk of prenatal of conception, fast cell division & start of diiferentiation

    embryonic- 3-8 wk after conception, basics form (internal organs)

    fetal- 9wk of conception till birth, during when organs grow in size & mature in functioning
  40. age of viability
    age @ which a preterm newborn can survive outsie mothers uterus w/ medical care, about 22wk after conception

    • 26 wk suvival rate 50%
    • 28 wk survival rate 95%
  41. teratogens
    substances that can cause abnormalities or later learninf disabilities

    behavioral teratogens- agents conditions that harm pernatal brain, impairing future development (intellectual & emotional)

    teratology- study of birth defects
  42. low birth wt (LBW)
    • LBW- 5 1/2 lb
    • VLBW- 3lb 5 oz
    • ELBW- 2lb 3 oz
  43. preterm birth
    ocurrs 3 or more wk before full 38wk of typical pregn. has elapsed that is @ 35 or fewer wkn after conception
  44. Sm. 4 gestational age (SGA)
    • when babies wt lower then expected, given time of conception
    • (ex. 5lb baby concidered SGA if born on time but not SGA if born 2mo earlier
  45. apgar scale
    • quick assessment of babys body functions:
    • color, HR, reflexes, muscle tone, Resp.,

    • given score of 0-2, either 1-5 min after birth
    • 5min score is crucial
  46. which r da vulnerability risks 2 developing baby @ each period of prenatal development
    germinal period- 60% of developing organsim fail 2 grow or implant right & dont survive this stage, most of these organisms are grossly abnormal

    embryonic period- 20% of all embryo aborted spontaneously, mostly b*c of chromosomal abnormalities

    fetal period- 5% of all fetus aborted spontaneously before viability @ 22wk or are still born, defined as born dead after 22wk

    birth- 31% of all zygotes grow & survive to newborn babies
  47. head-sparing
    • biological protection of brain when malnutrition temp. effect body growth
    • the brain is the last part to b damages
  48. axon/dendrite/synpase/myelin
    axon- fiber that extends from neuron & transmits electrochemical impulses from neuron to dendrites of other neuron

    dendrites- recieves electrochemical impulses (messages) from other neurons via axon

    synpase- intersection- between axon & dendrite, carries info

    myelin- covering the axon, speeds transmission of neural impulses
  49. gross motor skills vs fine motor skills
    • gross motor-involving lrg body movements (WALKING, JUMPING)
    • fine motor- involves sm. body movements, especially hands & fingers (DRAWING, PICKING UP STUFF)
  50. Immunization
    measels, whooping cough, pneumonia, sm. pox, polio, rubella,
  51. sudden infant death syndrome
    A healthy baby @least 2 mo. suddenly stops breathing & dies unexpectedly while sleep
  52. know factors that correlate w/ SIDS (bottle feedings, sleepin on stomach, sleepin alone)
    **text & lecture notes**
    correlated w/ sleeping on thier stomach, parents who smoke, low SES, long periods of long lone sleep, breast fed(they sleep less soundly & deep), low birth wt, overdressed, teenage parenthood, 2 many serotonin receptors in brain stem which controls HR & breathing

    breastfeeding & pacifiers help strengthen infants breathing reflex
  53. know advantages of breast-feeding
    **text & lecture notes**
    • u should breast feed da 1st 4-6mo., should b part of diet 4 @least 1yr
    • after birth colostrum which is thick, high calorie(fat, protein)adjust to age, has micronutritients, less illness, allergy, ear infections, stomach upset, asthma, obesity, better vision, less adult illness(DM, cancer, heart disease), protect against measles , & other childhood diseases b/c of antibodies, stronger jaws, less cavities, less SIDS, higher IQ, later puberty, itz always sterile & @ body temp., it has iron, vit. C, A, has antioxidants 4 diseases that the mother has naturally or acquired immunity, milk is more digestable, better 4 babyz brainbreast milk adjust itself 4 babyz age, quantitie increase 2 meet demand
  54. ? r da consequences of malnutrition
    • wasting- severely & chronically malnorished b/c low calories & protein
    • brains may not develope norm., if malnorished 4 long & affected ht then it may affect brain
    • child may have no body reserve 4 protection of common diseases, worst is marasmus where growth stops b/c low protein, body tissue waste & child eventually dies)
    • some disease r directly from malnutrition
    • after age 1 malnurtrition can cause kwashiorkor (means disease of older child when new baby born b/c less attention) where growth retarded, liver damage, immune system weakened: legs, face, abdomen swell w/ fluid, low energy, hair brittle, thin & colorless, more likely to get measel, influenza, diarrhea
  55. sensorimotor intelligence
    way infants think. by using der senses & motor skills during da 1st period of cognative development, it a 2yr long period & subdivided into 6 stages
  56. 6 stages of piaget's sensorimotor intelligence (chart)
    • Infants response to own body:
    • primary circular reactions:
    • stage 1(birth- 1mo)- reflexes: sucking, grasping, staring, listening
    • stage 1(1-4mo)-1st acquired adaption: accomadation & coordination: ex. sucking on pacifier differently then nipple, holding bottle
    • infants response to ppl/objects:
    • secondary circular reactions:
    • stage 3(4-8mon)- awareness of things:responding to ppl/objects (ex. clapping when mother says patty-cake
    • stage 4(8-12mo)-new adaptation & anticipation:more deliberate & purposefull in responding to ppl/objects (ex. putting moms hands 2gether to start playing patty-cake)
    • most creative, 1st w/ action & then w/ ideas:
    • tertiary circular reactions:
    • stage 5(12-18mo)- new means thru active experimentation:(ex. putting teddy bear in toilet & flushing)
    • stage 6(18-24mo)- new means thru mental combination: considering be4 doing(trial & error) (ex. remembering that toilet overflowed last time & hesitating)
  57. process of adaption & how it occurs thru assimilation or accommodation
  58. objected permanence
    start @ about 8mo & have really understood it by 2yr(stage 4), awareness dat objects/ppl still exist when dey cant be seen, touched, heard
  59. deferred imitation
    way infants copy/preceives behaviors they see hrs or days before
  60. 3 theories of language development in infants
    • 1. infants need 2 b thought
    • 2. infants teach themselves
    • 3. social impulses foster infant language- percieves the crucial starting point as neither vocabulary reinforcement((behaviorism) nor innate connection(epigenetic) but rather social reason 4 language
  61. synchrony
    • coordinated interaction between caregiver & infant, how they respond to each other
    • ***help infant learn to express feeling
    • ***imitation is pivitol
    • ***becaomes more elaborate & more frequent in time
    • ***learning thru play- playful interactions by both partners, important 4 both to respond b/c child may show play limit, or brain development
  62. temperment & caregiving
    • inhibited vs unimhidited
    • -responsive care & encouragement can help inhibit children become less so

    • match between parent & child
    • - goodness of fit
  63. attachment
    lasting emotional bond that one person has w/ another, it form @ infancy

    • enduring emotional connection
    • -proximity-seeking behaviors
    • -contact-maintaining behaviors

    • emotional regulation-
    • secure & insecure
    • -bowely & ainsworth
    • -secure- realationship of trust & confidence that gives comfort, assurance, & secure base

    • insecure- relationship that is unpredictable/unstable
    • -aviodance- ppl avoid connection w/ other
  64. patterns of attachment in infancy (chart)
    Type A- insecure-avoidant: in play room child plays happily, mom leaves & child continues to play, mom returns child ignores her

    Type B- secure: in play room child plays happily, mom leaves child pauses & isnt as happy, mom returns & child welcomes her & starts playin

    Type C- insecure-resistant/ambivalent: in play room child clings & is preoccupied w/ mom, mom leaves child unhappy stops playin, mom returns child is mad, may cry, hit & cling to her

    Type D- disorganized: in play room child is cautious, mom leaves child may stare/yell, looks confused/scared, mom returnschild acts oddly may freeze, scream, hit himself & throw things
  65. ? r some of the ways that disturbed mothers develop disorganized attachments in their infants (table)
  66. 5 characteristics of high-quality day care
    • 1. adequate attention to each infant- low caregiver-2-infant ratio(2/5), sm. groups
    • 2. encouragement of language & sensorimotor development- games, songs, conversation positive talk
    • 3. attention 2 health & safety- cleanliness, accident prevention, safe areas 4 play
    • 4. well-trained & professional caregivers- caregivers should have degree/certificate, or work w/ kids 4 yrs, they should love own kids & jobs
    • 5. warm & responsive caregivers- help kids w/ problem & discussions rather than instructions. Quiet, obedient kids may b an indication of unresponsive care
  67. what r some difficulties researchers face in their efforts 2 determine whether day care is harmful or beneficial 2 infants & children (lecture notes)
    • all of the above- hard to give only one reason
    • time, expectation, caregivers,

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