Test 2

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Test 2
2011-07-12 23:17:42
Lifespan Development

Chapters 8-13
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  1. ? is myelination
    does expirience affect the rate of myelination
    myelination-process where axons r coated by myelin (fatty substance that speeds signal between neurons)

  2. ? is lateralization, & when does it begin
    lateralization- literally, sidedness. the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain, 1 side dominant 4 q activity

    start @ play yrs
  3. ? is perseveration, & how might it manifested in a 3y/o
    tendecy to perserve in/stick to 1 thought/action for a long time

    they dont lose interest fast
  4. why do public health experts refer to "injury control" or "harm reduction" as opposed to "accident prevention"
    injury control or harm reduction are things that minimized harm, accidents are random, unpredictable & cant be blamed on anyone
  5. ? r 3 levels of injury prevention
    primary prevention- an overall change in conditions for prevention of (injury, disease, abuse)

    secondary prevention- averting harm in high-risk situations (stoping car before it hits ppl)

    tertiary prevention- immediate & effective medical tx after illness or injury & r aimed @ reducing harm or preventing disability
  6. define:
    child abuse
    child neglect
    child abuse- deliberate action, harmful to child physical, sexual, emotional

    child neglect- failure to meet childs basic physical, educational, & emotional needs
  7. 3 factors that contribute to the 3-1 ratio of reported to substantiated cases of child maltreatment
    • **each child counted once, even if repeated maltreatment reported
    • **substanation requires proof in form of unmistakable injuries, serious malnutrition, or a witness willing to testify (evidence not always available)
    • **report may be false or deliberately misleading (less then 1%)
  8. consequences of maltreatment? (including failure to thrive, hypervigilance, & PTSD)
    • think of others as hostile & exploitative
    • less friendly, more aggressive, & isolated
    • become bullies/victims @ x's both
    • use drugs/alcohol to numb emotions
    • have unsupported relationships
    • they sabotage their careers
    • eat too much/little
    • engage in self-destructive behaviors
  9. In Piagets theory of cognitive development, ? is preoperational thought
    • between 2-6yr
    • magical & self-centered, child not yet ready for logical operations(reasoning process)
  10. know 4 aspects of preoperational thought;
    centration, focus on appearance, static reasoning, & irreversibility
    • **centration- tendency 2 focus on 1 idea
    • **focus on appearance- ignores all attributes except appearance
    • **static reasoning- assumes dat world is unchanging
    • **Irreversibilty- fails to recognize dat reversing a process can sometimes restore wateva existed before transformation
    • **egocentrism-child tendency to think bout the world entirely from their own personal perspective
  11. conservation & logic
    • thinking is intuitive rather than logical:
    • conservation- idea that amount of substance is unaffected by changes in appearance(liquid, #, matter, length)

    • all 4 charcteristics of preoperational thought:
    • children fail to understand conservation of liquids b/c dey focus(center) on wat is seen(appearance), noticing only immediate(static) condition. It doesnt occur 2 them that they could reverse the process & re-create the liquid level of earlier(irreversibility)
  12. what is 1 of the criticism of piagets w/ regards to his estimate of conceptual ability during early childhood
    he designed his experiments 2 reveal ? young kids seemed not to understand , rather than 2 indentify ? they could understand , & he relied on the kids words in a experimental setting rather then their non-verbal signs in play context
  13. what does the term "theory-theory" refer to
    Gopnik's term 4 idea that kids attempt 2 construct a theory 2 explain everything they see & hear
  14. In Vygotsky theory, ? is guided participation, an apprentice in thinking, the zone of proximal development, & scaffolding?
    • guided perception- children learn by social expirience & exploration, by mentors
    • apprentice in thinking- child whose intellectual growth is stimulated & directed by older more skilled members of society
    • zone of proximal development(ZPD)-skills dat person can exercise w/ assist, not alone
    • scaffolding-sensitive structure of child's participation in learning encounters, temp. support tailored to their needs & abilities, & help child master task
  15. in ? 2 ways does language advance thinking, according to Vygotsky
    • private speech- internal dialogue when ppl talk 2 self (out-loud, silent) thru new ideas, review, 2 explain
    • social mediation- function of speech where ppls cognative skills r refined & extended thru formal instruction (teacher) & casual conversation
  16. ? do we mean by "theory of mind" & when does it emerge
    persons theory of ? others r thinking (emotions,thoughts,perception,actions), & they can only understand this till they understand that evryone thinks differently, child develops this before 4yr
  17. with regard to the development of vocabulary & grammar, what are fast mapping & overregulation
    fast-mapping-- the speedy sometimes imprecise way kids learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning

    overregulation-- kids apply rules when they shouldn't (applying s for plural=foots, tooths, sheeps, mouses)
  18. be familiar w/ types of early-childhood education programs discussed in the text
    • stressing childrens development & growth (they need to play & explore)
    • **Montessori schools- give structure, individual projects, goal is for kids to feel proud of them-selfs
    • **The Regio Emilia Approach- encourage kids to master skills not seen in American schools till 7y/o like writing, using tools, but kids not req. to engage in learning, no formal lesson, no lrg-group instructions, long-term projects so that kids have pride in their work & the school displays in all over the school, parents need to b involved & teacher have 6hr wk to plan activities

    • curriculum teaches letters, #, shapes, colors, how 2 listen & sit quietly, praise given 4 good behavior, & time-out, goal is 2 make kids "ready 2 learn", kids answer ?s in groups,

    • think early childhood is the prime learning period, some kids learn more then others , some programs offer all day, some 1/2 day
    • **Head-start--federal program 4 low-income/minority, teaching social & learning skills, some are 6hr other than 3hr b/c itz thought that learning correlates with time spent in school, trys to lift ppl out of poverty, giving dental & immunizations, to teaching standard English, some follow child-centered other teacher-directed, some consider parents as the problem other regard parents as their allies, no special curriculum or goals,
    • **Expiremental programs- many hrs & yrs with cognitive emphesis, enroll low-income kids several yrs before kindergarden all expiremental groups of kids with matched control groups, show that kids are smarter then those that live in same area, & have better achievments, neither child-center or teacher-directed but in combination, parents engaged, program expensive but thought to to better then cost of future problems
  19. be familiar w/ Erik Erikson's stage of initiative vs guilt, which characterizes the play yrs
    • kids start new activities & feel guilty when they fail, starts 3rd stage (3-6yr)
    • **self-esteem emerges-selfworth
    • **self-concept- understanding of self develops
    • **spontaneous play becomes goal directed
    • **attention span gets longer
    • **pride leads 2 concentration & persistance
    • **guilt is a negative consequence of stage
  20. 1.? is considered to b preeminent accomplishment of play years

    2. 2 ways emotions can over power kid if emotional regulation not accomplished
    1. emotional regulation- ability to control who/how emotions r expressed, ability 2 dirct or change ones feelings, (2-6yr)

    • 2. externalizing- lashing out, attacking
    • internalizing- fearfull, withdrawn
  21. In ? 2 ways can emotions overpower a child if this accompishment is not achieved
    • self-esteem- belief in ones own ability (success & worthiness)
    • self-concept- understanding of he/she is (appearance, personality, & other traits)
  22. ?, is any is the relationship between emotional regulation & attachment
    emotional regulation- kids who master when & how to control emotions, they tend to become more capable in q aspect of their lives, usually controlled by age 6 (being mad, friendly, scared, impulsive)
  23. ? does Daniel Goleman mean by "emotional intelligence,'' & what do parents do to enhance their childs emotional intelligence?

    be familiar w/ primary types of play (active, imaginative)
    ability 2 regulate emotions & understanding others feelings
  24. 4 types os aggression (table)
    instrumental aggression- hurtful behavior aimed @ gaining somethin- increase @ 2-6, involves objects more then ppl, normal egocentric not antisocial

    reactive aggression- retaliation 4 hurt (intentional, accidental, verbal, physical)- lack of emotional regulation, 2y/o, 5y/o could stop, think before reacting

    relational aggression- nonphysical acts, insults, social rejection, aimed @ harming social connection between victim & others- involves personal attack is antisocial, very hurtful, common when kids r socially aware

    bullying aggression- unprovoked, repeated physical, verbal, especially when victim can't defend self- both bully & victim, poor emotional regulation, adults should intervene before school yrs
  25. 4 important dimensions that influense parenting styles
    • 1.expression of warmth
    • 2.strategies 4 discipline
    • 3.communication
    • 4.expectation 4 maturity
  26. Baumrinds 3 styles of parenting
    authoritarian- parents word is da law, may b strict, physical, kid unhappy, feels guilt, depressed, internalizing frustration, blaming self, rebel, leave home, low communication

    permissive- high nuturance & communication but rare punishment, guidance, control, kids unhappy, kids stay home when adults

    authoritative- parents set limits but listen & r flexible, kid likly to b successful, happy
  27. understand how discipline of children RT early characteristics (TABLE)
    • 1. remember theory of mind- encourage empathy- how would u feel if it was done 2 u,
    • 2. remember emerging self-concept- kids get sense of who they r & what they want, teach if they dont want to share then dont show toy
    • 3.remember language explosion & self-mapping- dont just punish mayb they didnt understand, discussion will helo kid learn
    • 4.remember that kids r not logical- if u spank kids explain why u r doin it
  28. ? r some concerns that developmentalist have about spanking as disciplinary technique
    kids spanked r more aggressive, they become abusive as adults, bullying
  29. ? are some concerns that developmentalist have about the impact of tv & video games on children
    kids do what they see, especially aggression, know how much they watch & what is being watched, with video games they r participating in the aggression
  30. define:
    • overwt- BMI of 25-29, & kids being above 85%based by CDC 4 der age/sex
    • obesity- BMI 30 or more, kids being above 95%based by CDC 4 der age/sex
  31. causes/define of asthma
    asthma- chronic- inflammatory disorder of da airway, narrowing from lungs 2 nose/ mouth

    S/S- wheezing, SOB, chest tightness, coughing

    causes- genes, kids overprotected from viruses/bacteria so their immune system doesn't strengthens, carpets, pets in home, airtight windows, low out door play, smoking, dust mites, roaches, mold, air pollution
  32. Be familiar w/ selective attention & automatization & how they r manifested in the school yrs
    selective attention- ability 2 concentrateon some stimuli while ignoring others, is crucial 4 early childhood competence, SA req. ongoin myelination & increased production of neurotransmiters & improves noticeabilty @ age 7 (better listening, taking notes, low distractions), & can respond correctly to all

    automatization- repetition of thought/actions till automatic/routine, after repeating neurons fire in sequence, increased myelination & hrs of practice lead 2 automatic pilot of cognition
  33. difference between aptitude test & achievment test
    • **aptitude test- potential 2 master skill or learn a particular body of language, intellectual aptitude most important in school-aged kids, & measured by
    • IQ test (intelligence quotient)- inteligence was defined by mental age divided by chronological age times 100
    • **achievement test- not what kid might learn but what has been learned, measures writing, reading, math, science, other subjects

    Flynn effect- rise in IQ scores
  34. autism
    developmental disorder maked by inability 2 relate 2 others, extreme self-absorption, inability 2 have normal speech

    ***autistic spectrum disorder- many disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impaired communication, & abnormal play
  35. asperger's syndrome
    extreme attention 2 details & deficient social understanding, high-functioning, high intelligence in special area, social interaction impaired
  36. laws petaining to special education in U.S. (table)
    PL 91-230: children w/ specific learning disability act 1969- recognize learning disabilities as category w/i special education,, before that thay recieved no special edu. or services

    PL 94-142: Edu. of all handicaped children act 1975- mandated edu 4 all kids no matter disability in least restrictive environment(LRE)- means w/ other kids (reg. class if possible),, law req. an individual edu. plan (IEP) 4 each kid w/ needs, specifying edu goals & periodic assessments

    PL 105-17: Individuals w/ disabilities Edu act (IDEA) 1990- refers 2 individuals not just kids (infants, toddlers, adults) & to disabilities not handicaps. emphasizes parents rights in placements & IEP
  37. criticism of IQ testing
    • scores predict later edu & adult success
    • thought to be genetic at 1st, but now said to b environmental
    • score of 100 is average
    • 2/3 of ppl are 85-115, & 96% r 70-130
    • scores of 70 or low concidered mental retardation, 55-70 mild retardation, moderate is 40-54, severe is 25-39, profounf is below 25

    • ** non test can measure potential w/o measuring achievments & dat q test scores reflect of da culture of ppl who wrote, administer, & take it
    • **developmementalist know dat intellect change over life span
    • **many test indicate learning potential (if 8y/o cant read then they check their vision, hearing, then comprehension & so on)
    • **concept that there is 1 general thing called intelligence, but some have multiple intelligence
    • 1. academic- measured by IQ score & achievement
    • 2. creativeness- evidence by imaginative endeavors
    • 3. practical- every day problem solving
    • 4. emotional- ability 2 regulate emotions & understanding others feelings (most important 4 success then intelectual)
    • **8 intelligence- lingustic, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinetics, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, ppl could have one but not the other
  38. definitions:
    least restrictive environment
    mainstreaming- educating kids w/ special needs in regular class

    ***LRE- legal req. that kids w/ special needs need 2 b placed in most general educational class where dey could b expected 2 learn

    ***IEP- individual educational plan-document that specifies educational goals & plans for a child w/ special needs
  39. Piagets stages
    • sensorimotor- 0-2yr
    • preoperational- 3-6yr
    • concrete-7-11yr
    • formal-11yr
  40. 4 lessons developed by psychopathology research w/ regard to developmental variations in children
    • 1. abnormality is normal- most ppl act odd, so ppl w/ disabilities are like everyine else
    • 2. Disability changes yr by yr- ppl who may b severely disabled @ one stage may become quite capable , or vise-versa
    • 3. Adulthood may b better or worse- prognosis is hard, many kids w/ disabilities could b happy & productive, some conditions r more disabling @ maturity when interpersonal skills become more important
    • 4. DX depends on social context- how culture should be considered before a DX can be made
  41. concrete operational thought
    collection of concepts dat enable kids to reason logically about direct expiriences & perceptions

    7-11yr, Piagets 3rd stage

    Vygotsjy didnt think that kids were social isolated learners
  42. classification
    organization of things into groups by common characteristics
  43. identity
    logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change
  44. reversibility
    principle that things that have been changed can be returned 2 original state by reversing process that changed it
  45. reciprocity
    when 2 things change in opposite direction in order to balance each other out (ex. converastation expirement w/ liquid)
  46. Kohlberg's 6 stages of moral reasoning (chart)
    • level 1: preconventional moral reasoning (goal is to get reward & avoid punishment) self-centered
    • **stage 1- might make right--important to keep appearance of obedience or dont get caught
    • **stage2- look out 4 # 1--each person takes care of own needs

    • level 2- conventional moral reasoning (emphasis of social rules, community-centered)
    • **stage 3- good girl/boy- proper behavior is behavior that pleases others, social approval very important
    • **stage 4- law & order- proper behavior means being a dutiful citizen & obeying laws all the time, even when no police are nearby

    • level 3- postconventional moral reasoning-(emphasis on moral principles, centered on ideas)
    • **stage 5- Social contract- obey social rules b/c dey benefit everyone & r a mutual agreement, if rules destructive or one party doesn't live up 2 agreement da contract is no longer binding, under some circumstances desobeying law is moral
    • **stage 6- universal ethical principle- determined right/wrong,
  47. ? does Carol Gilligan mean by the terms morality of care & morality of justice
    morality of care- women, reluctant to judge right/wrong b/c they are socialized to b nurturant, compassionate, & non-judgemental

    morality of justice- men, emphasizes justice over compasion, judge right/wrong in absolute terms
  48. Define:
    sensory memory
    working memory
    long-term memory
    sensory memory (sensory registration)- componant of info-processing where incoming info stored 4 split sec. to allow processing

    working memory(short-term memory)- current concious mental activity occurs

    long-term- limitless amounts of info can b stored
  49. sensory memory
    • 5 basic senses
    • vision
    • auditory
    • gusture
    • texture
    • ophaltic
  50. ? is metacognition
    • thinkin about ones thoughts
    • older childrens approach cognative tasks more strategically & analytically

    **come up with strategy**
  51. know the differance between the phonic approach & the whole language approach to teaching children how to read
    phonics approach- teaching reading by teaching kids to learn sounds of letters

    whole language approach- teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills (talking listening, reading, & writing)
  52. ? r to strategies for teaching english to non-english-speaking students
    total immersion- strategy in which instructions in all subjects occur in second language kids is learning

    bilingual education- strategy in which subjects taught in both the learners original & second language

    **ESL- where kids dat dont speak english are placed together an intensive course in basic english so dat they can be taught in reg english classes
  53. ? was Freud's term for the school-aged period of development (latency)
    emotional drives quieter, phychosexual needs repressed, unconcious conflicts submerged

    identify w/ same sex parent, teachers, friends, correct gender identity
  54. ? is Erik Erikson's of this stage of development
    (industry vs inferiority)
    • kids master skills valueable to own culture
    • social worlds beyound family contibute to sense of industry or inferiority (compentency, productivity, adequancy) leading to (incomptence, inadequate)
  55. social comparison
    tendacy to assess ones abilities achievments , social status, & other attributes, by measuring atributes from other ppl & own peers, kids feels a fault 4 their own short-coming

    • cultural comparison are reflected:
    • many social groups teach kids not to b to outstanding
  56. ? characteristics do all the major theories (Freud, Erikson, social cognative theory, socioculture, & epigenetic) attributes to the school-aged stage
    epigenetic theory- emergent theory of development dat considers both genetics origen behaviors (w/i each person/species) & the direct, systematic influence that environmental forces have, over time, on genes

    socialcultural theory- emergent theory dat hold that development results from dynamic interaction between each person & surrounding social/cultural forces

    social cognative- ability to understand social interactions, including causes & consequences of human behaviors

    effortful control- ability to regulate ones emotions & actions thru effort, not only thru natural inclination
  57. ? r the differences among the following groups of children:
    popular, neglected, aggressive-rejected, or withdrawn-rejected (see term & chart)
    • **popular- being well-liked
    • **neglected- not really rejected
    • **aggressive-rejected--rejected by peers b/c of anatagonist/confrontational behaviors
    • **withdrawn-rejected- rejected by peers b/c 2 timid, withdrawn, & anxious behavior
  58. ? is bullying, & @ ? age do we typically see an increase in this behavior
    • repeated effort to inflict harm (physical, verbal, social), emotional(girls), physical(boys),
    • thought to be normal part of daily play w/few consequences
  59. family structures
    legal & genetic relationships (nuclear, single, one parent, step parents)
  60. with regard to family functions, ? 5 things do children need their families to do
    • give basic needs
    • encourage learning
    • develope self-respect
    • nurtures frindship w/ peers
    • provides stability & harmony
  61. ? is resilience, & what r the important part of this definition
    dynamic process encompassing positive adaption w/i the context of significant adversity

    • Important part of definition:
    • dynamic- means a given person may b resilient @ some periods but not others
    • positive adaption- turning rejection from one person to the person
    • significant- determining whether minor (lrg class size/poor vision)/major(victimazation/neglect)
  62. what role does religion play in coping
    • powerful source of support
    • kids develope own theology