Test 4

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  1. differance between primary & secondary aging
    primary- inevitable, irreversable physical changes, happens to everyone

    secondary- specific illnesses/conditions dat are common w/ age but are conseuence of life-style (drinkin, smokin, eatin, exercise),
  2. some factors dat can worsen da change dat r da inevitable result of primary aging
    lossing hair, & grey hair, wrinkles, hearing, fat, vision, we get belly fat, & fat in arms, butt, eyelids, chin, ppl get shorter, breathing get deeper & shallower
  3. how much faster does men's hearing decline then women
    twice as fast
  4. r middle aged ppl more/less/equally, likely to catch diseases (common cold) compared to other age groups
    less b/c of immunity
  5. disability adjusted life years (DALY)
    each yr lost to premature dealth & each fraction of full quality of life due to disability reduces a persons DALYS
  6. top 3 causes of disability-adjusted life yrs (DALYs)
    • 1. lower repiratory tract ifection
    • 2. HIV/AIDS
    • 3. Birth complications & defects
  7. ? r the worst yrs in lifespan w/ respect to rates of Over-WT & obesity, how many adults r over-wt during this age span
    • 45-65
    • 66% overwt
  8. by how much does metabolism slow down betweeen 20-50
    1/3 decreases bewteen 20-50 yrs
  9. 3 causes of ethnic variations in health
    genetic risk

    specific health care behavior (diet & exersice)

    social context factors including stress, predjuice & poverty
  10. w/ regard to da study of intelligence & aging, ? has cross-sectional research shown?
    in the 20th century- intelligence rises in childhood, peaks @ adolescents, & then declines

    during ww1- it reaches itz peak @ 18, stayed same level til mid-20, then declined

    younger adults outscore older ones
  11. ? is Flynn effect?
    trend toward increasing average IQ, found in all developed nations during 20th century, both longtitude & cross-sectional

    b/c of nutrition, wider edu. & expirience, low toxins, sm. family size
  12. 5 primary abilities
    • 1. verbal meaning
    • 2. spatial orientation
    • 3. inductive reasoning
    • 4. # ability
    • 5. word fluency

    after 80 yrs, deciline small but satistically significant
  13. difference between fluid & crystallized intelligence, & which increases w/ age
    fluid intelligence- born smart, quick & thorough, abilities like short*term memory, abstract thought, speed thought, (ex. puzzles), some think it declines w/ age

    crystallized intelligence- abilities the reflect on accumulated learning, expirience & facts, long-term memory, some think dat it increases w/ age
  14. ? is Howard Gardners theory about intelligence? (hint: he doesn't beleive dat intelligencce is unidimensional)
    • multifactorial
    • multidirectional
  15. ? r da characteristics of expert cognition
    intuitive: novices follow formal procedures & rules, rely on expiriences & immediate contexts, der actions r more intuitive & less stereotype

    automatic: complex action, routine

    strategic: experts distinguishing by strategies, especially when problem is unexpected

    flexible: experts being creative & curious, like to experiment, getting challenged
  16. wat r the Big Five personality traits? (hint: use Ocean as memory device), which 2 increase w/ age, which 2 decrease, & which one stays da same
    openness: imaginative, curious, artistic, creative, open to new expiriences

    conscientiousness: organized, deliberate, conforming, self-desciplined

    extroversion: outgoing, assertive, acting

    agreeableness: kind, helpful, easygoing, generous

    Neurotician: anxious, moody, self-punishing, critical
  17. Consistent trait (doesn't change)
  18. wat is gender convergence
    tendency for both sexes to become similar as they move thru middle-age
  19. men midlife crisis
    NO man goes through serious midelife crisis
  20. In Unites States, at any given moment, how many middle aged parents have at least 1 child living at home
  21. What are 2 reasons that middle aged women are at a disadvantage for marry ir remarry
    more women than men
  22. why did 1 researcher describe the usual relationship pattern between siblings as an "hourglass effect"
    • better w/ time
    • familism- idea dat family support one another
    • close during childhood, increasingly distant during adolscence & early childhood, than closer together again, especially if siblings marriage ends
  23. wat is da leading cause of death from injury after 60
    • falls
    • flexabilty is one of the best predictors of vitality
  24. why is it dat sensory losses which used 2 b devestating have less impact on longevity 2day
    we have better technology
  25. ? is elderspeak, & does it increase comprehension in elders
    • baby talk
    • makes them feel bad
    • humiliates them
  26. ? is da wear & tear theory of aging (body is not a mechine)
    seem like body wears out b/c od passage of time & exposure to environment stressers
  27. wat is da max life span 4 humans, as best we can estimate (genetic clock)
    115-120 yrs

    maximun # of years that a particular speciess is genetically programmed to live
  28. wat r oxygen free radicals
    atoms of O2 that, as result of metabolic process, have an unpaired electron, these atoms scramble DNA molecules or mitochondria, producing errors in cell maintance & repair that, w/ time lead to cancer, DM, arteriosclerosis
  29. hayflick limit
    # of time a human cell is capable of dividing into 2 new cells, limit 4 each cell is bout 50 divisions, showing that life span is limited by our genetics
  30. 4 life style factors dat long-lived ppl have in common (LONGIVITY)
    • diet is moderate (fresh vegies, lil meat)
    • work cont. thruout life
    • family & community r important
    • exercise & relaxation r part of daily routine
  31. primary aging
    all irreresible & universal physical changes over time
  32. terminal decline
    • slowdown of cognative abilities day/mon before death
    • marked loss of intellectual ower
    • results not from age-rather from being close to death

    change in cognative ability & increase depression often precedes visible worsening of health
  33. dementia
    • actual brain damage
    • ireversable loss of intell. functioning caused be organic brain disease
    • s/s
    • confusion/forgetfullness, impaired memory & problem solving & judgement, rambaling sleech, personality changes

    • common w/ age
    • more than 70 disease can lead to dementia
    • hard to DX
  34. alzheimer disease & wat r da 5 stages (basic nature of each stage)
    characterized by proliferation of plaques & tangles ( formed from proteins)

    abnormalities in cerbral cortex that destroys brain functioning

    • risk fators:
    • gender, ethnicity,
    • women higher risk
    • common in north america & europe than chapan & china
    • less common in ppl in africa
    • higher 65-85, & ppl w/ ApoE4 gene (allele 4)

    • pre alzheimer- under 60
    • 1/100-65yr
    • 1/5-85yr

    • 5 stages:
    • st 1- general forgetfullness
    • st 2- more general confusion, noticible differanes in concentration & STM, speech repetative
    • st 3- memory loss becomes dangerous,
    • cant take care of basic needs
    • st 4- need full time care, @ times irrational (angry/paranoid)
    • st 5- compeltely mute, cant respond w/ any action/emotion
    • death happens 10-15yrs after onset
  35. In wat way does progression of "pure" vascular dementia (VAD) differ from dat of alzheimer's disease
    • many mini strokes, loss of brain functioning
    • temp. obstruction of blood vessals, reduce blood to brain (stroke)
    • common cause is artherosclerosis
  36. most common cause of reversible dementia
    • overmedication
    • undernourishment
  37. phychological illnesses r less common in elders then younger adults
  38. life review
    examination of ones own part of life, engaged in by many elderly ppl
  39. Erickson's final stage of development
    • integrity vs despair
    • elders seek integrate their unique expirience w/ their vision of community
  40. disengagement theory
    view that aging makes a person's social sphere increasingly narrow, leading to role relinquishment, withdrawal, & passivity
  41. relationship between religious faith & age
    • faith encourages ppl 2 have a healthier life style (less drugs & alcohol)
    • ppl connect w/ other ppl
    • helps to expirience less stress
  42. why r elderly characterized as more politically active than other age groups
    • tend to to better informed (more interetsed)
    • write to their elected representatives
    • vote in off-yr elections
    • identify w/ political party
    • join groups that lobby in behalf of certain interest
  43. social convoy
    family members, friends, acquaintances, & even strangers who move thru life w/ individual
  44. living w/o spouse easier for men or women, & why
    easier for men, b/c usually women outlive men
  45. does marriage change 4 better in late adulthood
  46. reasons dat # of frail elderly & degree of der frailty r increasing
    • ppl living longer
    • medical care emphasizes on preventing deah more than enhancing life
    • adequate nutrition, safe housing, & health aides r able to prevent/postpone fraility, but some mobility, planning, &/or money is needed
  47. hospice care, & 5 reasons dat it doesn't reach all pt dat may benefit
    where terminally ppl could spend their last days & get pallitive care

    • 1. must be terminally ill, w/ death w/i 6mo., which may be hard to DX
    • 2. ppl need to have accepted death
    • 3.expensive, especially curative therapy
    • 4.only in selective areas
    • 5. usually ppl w/ cancer
  48. difference of passive euthanasia & active euthanasia
    passive euthanasia- when seriously ill person allowed to die naturally, stop medical TX

    active euthanasia- person take action to bring anothers death, done to stop others suffering
  49. 2 forms of active authanasia: physician-assisted suicide & voluntary euthanasia
    physican-assisted- dr gives means for person to end their life

    voluntary- pt asks someone to end their life
  50. In wat 2 nations or states is physician-assisted suicide &/or voluntary euthanasia legal
    • netherlands
    • switerland
    • belgium
    • oregon
  51. difference between bereavement, grief, & mourning
    bereavement-sense of loss following a death

    grief- persons emotional response to death of other

    mourning- ceremonies & behaviors dat a religion/culture RX for bereaved ppl
  52. disenfranchised grief, & who typically suffers from it
    where certain ppl, although bereaved, are not allowed to mourn publicly

    unmarried lover (same/oppisite sex), ex-spouse, young children, friend (work), sibling, grandparents
Card Set
Test 4
Chapters 20-25
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