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What part of the PNS (Periferal Nervous System) functions without consciou effort?
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
What does the ANS control?
Smooth and cardiac muscle contraction of viscera and the heart
What does the ANS oversee?
Heart rate, BP, breathing rate, body temp., and other homeostatic activities (baseline-return to normal)
What innervates the adrenal glands and responds to emotional stress by releasing adrenaline and noradrenaline (NA)?
Parts of the ANS
What is the pathway of ANS motor nerver fibers (axons) that innervate smooth and cardiac muscle?
- Neurons originate from the anterior horn of the soinal cord and send axons that travel with the ventral root
- The preganglionic fibers eventually synapse with neurons located in autonomic ganglia
- The axons from the autonomic ganglia (post) go on to innervate smooth or cardic muscle (target)
What are the two divisions of the ANS?
What is another name for sympathetic division?
What does the sympathetic division of the ANS do?
- Expends enrgy and deals with stressful emergency situations
- FLIGHT or FIGHT
Where do the sympathetic preganglionic fibers origiate?
T1 through L2 spinal segments
What is another name for parasympathic division?
What does the parasympathetic division do?
Conserves energy and is active under normal, restful conditions, including digestion.
Where do the parasympathetic pregonlionic fobers originate?
Brainstem and spinal cord from segments S2-S4
Where do the preganglionic (parasympathetic) fibers from the brainstem travel?
To their destination: Automomic ganglia
*What system consists of specialized tissues (glands) that secrete hormones (chemical message) directly into the vascular system?
The Endocrine System
What secrets substances into ducts which drain to internal or external body sufraces?
Name the parts of the endocrine system:
- Pituitary gland
- Thyroid gland
- Parathyroid gland
- Adrenal glands
- Pineal gland
- Thymus gland
- Reproductive gland
- Digestive gland
*What do hormones do?
- Help regulate metabolic process such as:
- Blood pressure
- Water balance
- Blood sugar balance
*What is most hormone secretion controlled by?
- Senses that tell the body to find balance, like if there is too much or not enough of something
- + or -
- Factor - sensor - integrating - effect and back to Factor
- As hormone levels rise in the blood and the hormone makes an effect on the body, negative feedback inhibitis the system and the hormone secretion decreases.
- It also allows hormone concentrations to remain relatively stable
What are some of the tissues that make up the endocrine system?
- Large distinct glands (e.g. pancreas, thyroid gland, pituitary gland)
- Clumps of hormone secreting cells within certain organs (e.g. heart (reminds itself to beat) and kidneys)
*Is the pancreas part of the endocrin or exocrin system?
The Master Gland
- The Pituitary Gland or hypophysis
- Secretes numerous hormones that help regulate growth, sexual maturity, lactation, adrenal gland secretion and blood pressure
- Tells the other glands what to do
What are the features and where is the Pituitary Gland located?
- Approx. 1 cm in diameter located in the base of the braina nd housed in the sella-tuica (Turkish saddle) of the sphenoid bone (behind the nose) (about the size of a pestaio nut)
- Attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
- Two lobes
Anterior lobe of pituitary gland: adenohypophysis
- Growth hormones (GH)
- Prolactin (PrL)
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Posterior lobe of pituitary gland: neurohypophysis
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (Keeping fluids)
- Oxytocin (bone building-calcium regulator)
Where is the thyroid gland located?
- Consists of two lobes connected by a "bridge" called the isthmus (connects the two lobes)
- Located just inferior to and ont he lateral aspects of the larynx "voice box"
- Butterfly shaped gland in the neck
What are the fuctions of the thyroid gland?
- To control metabolism and the calcium level in the blood
- Also has the ability to remove iodine from the blood
- Hormones secreted:
- T3, T4
- Calcitonin (bone strength)
Where are the Parathyroid glands?
2 pair of glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid glands ("ride on the back")
What is the function of the parathyroid glands
- Secret hormones (parathyroid hormones) that help regulate calcium and phosphate ions in the blood
- (Muscles need to have calcium in order to contract)
Where are the Adrenal glands located? What is another name for them?
- Also called the suprarenal glands
- Located on the superior poles of the kidneys
- Consist of inner medulla that secrets hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system
What hormones do the outer cortex of the adrenal glands secrete?
- Control blood electrolytes (sodium & potassium) (talking to the kidneys)
- Control the metabolism of glucose, protein and fat
- Produce sex hormones
What are the characteristics of the Pancreas and where is it located?
- Large, flat, enlongated gland located posterior to the stomach
- Large part is called the body and is surrounded by the begining of the small intestine (duodenum)
- It is a dual gland with both endocrine and exocrine functions
- Endocrine part secrets insulin and glucagon that control blood sugar levels
- Exocrin part secrets digestive juice through a duct
- (Helps break down fats and carbs)
- Very small, located deep in the brain near the thalamus
- Secrets a hormone called melatonin which is involved in regulation of circadian rhythms
- Located posterior to the body of the sternum, between the lungs
- Shrinks as you age (is large in children)
- Secrets hormones involved with immunity (germs)
- The ovaries & placenta secrete sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) responsible for maintaining reproductive capability and the placenta maintains pregnancy
- The testes produce testosterone
Consist of small pockets of cells that line the stomach and small intestine which secrete hormones that help regulate digestion (little cells all over your digestive tract)
- Certain parts of the heart contain cells that secrete hormones that are involved with lowering blood pressure
- It can tell if it is working too hard and it will back off
- A-type Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
- B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
Contains cells that secrete a hormone (erythropoietin) that stimulates the production of red blood cells