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What is ATP?
- Adenosine Triphosphate
- Main source of energy for cell metabolism
ATP consists of ?
- Adenine molecule
- Ribose Sugar
- 3 Phosphate group
- ALL condensed together
ATP is hydrolysed into ADP
- 30.6 kJ per mole of ENERGY is released
- BREAK THE BOND BETWEEN 2ND AND 3RD PHOSPHATE GROUP (hence energy is stored there)
- Instability of the phosphate bond makes ATP an excellent energy donor.
- As they are highly negatively charged hence repel one another strongly, as phosphate bonds are easily broken
ATP is formed in the following processes
- Substrate level phosphorylation
- Oxidative phosphorylation
Significance of ATP
- Universal Energy Carrier
- Mobile Energy Carrier
- Easily Formed
- Source of energy for many energy-requiring processess (i.e ACTIVE TRANSPORT)
Cell respiration is the process whereby
organic compounds are oxidised within the cells to release chemical energy stored as ATP
Respiratory substrates are
- Carbohydrates (FIRST)
- Proteins (LAST)
Glycolysis occurs where?
outside the mitochondrion at the cytosol
Krebs cycle and ETC located?
Inside the mitochondrion
ATP is formed in 2 ways namely :
- Substrate level Phosphorylation
- Oxidative Phosphorylation
Substrate level phosphorylation
is the phosphorylation of ADP with inorganic phosphate groups to form ATP
- Glycolysis (cytoplasm)
- Krebs cycle (mitochondrial matrix)
Only small amount of ATP is generated this way
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