The overall approach to or outline of the study that details all the major components of the research.
The goal of design in a quantitative study is to ....
Limit the potential for bias
Address clinical as well as statistical issues
The basis for selecting a design is...
The demands of the research question
The _____ of the study may keep the ethical researcher from manipulating the environment or the treatment situation.
Nature of the variables
The ____ brings strengths and limitations to the study
Without the necessary ____, even a strong design may wind up with compromises.
Before the study begins
A naturalistic paradigm requiring only that the researcher ahve general direct6ion prior to starting the study.
Qualitative researchers are less concerned with the effects of extraneous variables because they are not measuring effects at all, but rather attempting to understand phenomena.
For these studies, very little may be prescribed a priori.
_______ approaches to design are appropirate when the purpose of the study is to measure the effect of an intervention, test a theory about relationships, or describe a phenomenon with precision.
Are appropriate when the purpose of the study is to understand the meaning of a phenomenon.
Qualitative approaches to design
Are appropriate when the results must reveal the tyrue relationship between acause and an effect or between two variables.
Is appropriate when a combination of meaning and control is needed.
A mixed method
A ____ may also be indicated for evaluation research, where effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction are important elements.
Research approaches designed to explore and describe a phenomenon of interest and generate new knowledge
Research approaches in which a relationship between variables ahs been posed and the study is designed to examine these hypotheses.
Exploratory studies are often qualitqtive or mixed methods studies but they may also be quantitative if measurement is employed.
Exploratory studies are classified as descriptive, even if they may describe relationships and associations. Survey methods are frequently used for exploratory studies
Are those in which a relationship between variables ahs been psoed and the study is designed to test the relationship statistically while minimizing bias
Confirmatory studies are more structuredc and controled than exploratory studies
Confirmatory studies are often next steps from exploratory studies
In quantitative research, the concepts that are of interest are translated into measurable characteristics called....
A characteristic, event, or response that represents the elements of the research question in a detectable or measurable way.
Characteristics that describe the sample and provide a composite picture of the subjects of the study; they are not manipulated or controlled by the researcher.
A descriptive variable may represent demographjic data about the subjects (age, gender, and ethnicity) or measurable characteristics (BP, weight, and hematocrit)
Descriptive variables are not considered part of the cause and effect equatio; no attempt is made to manipulate or control descriptive variables
A factor that is artificially introduced into a studuy explicitly to measure an expected effect. The cause of cause and effect.
The independent variable is inroduced into the experiement so that its impact on a specified outcome can be quantified.
The independent variable may also be called a treatment, experimental variable, or intervention
An outcome of interest that occurs after the introduction of an independent variable. The effect of cause and effect.
In an experiment, it is expected that an independent variable will ahve an effect on the dependent variable.
In a specific design type that is focused on prediction, the independent variable is more accurately called a predictor variable, and the dependent variable is referred to as an outcome variable.
Factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results
Extraneous variables exist in every study but they are most problematic in experiments
A specific type of extraneous variable is a confounder. Alcoholics--->lung cancer but because most alcoholics are smokers. Smoking is the confounder.
_____ research is appropriate when very little is known about the question at hand.
Research questions that generally begin with what and why generally indicate a descriptive study.
Research designed to describe in detail some process, event, or outcome. The design is used when very little is known about the research question.
Descriptive studies are often exploratory but they can also be confirmatory meaning the researcher suspects that a phenomenon or event exists in a population and he or she sets out to confirm those suspicions.
Research designed to quantify the strength and the direction of the relationship of two variables in a single subject or the relationship between a single variable in two samples.
Research designed to search for variables measured at one point in time that may forecast an outcome that is measured at a different point in time.
Both correlation and predictive research are considered descriptive because the variables are not manipulated and the relationships are not controlled.
The distortion of true findings by factos other than those being studied.
Studies causality by introducing an intervention to one group (the treatment group) and comparing an outcome to another group that has not experienced the intervention (the control group); subjects are randomly assigned to groups.
A treatment is introduced to a group but random assignment and/or a control group are missing
Nonexperimental study in which groups are selected because they do or do not have a characteristic of interest and are examined for a dependent variable; groups are carefully matched based on the independent variable
Causal-comparative design/case control
Validity is primarily a quantitative concern
Trustworthiness is the primary concern in qualitative studies
The phases of the research process include:
Identifying assumptions about the knowledge needed
Selecting an overall approach that serves the purpose
Specifying an explicit design for the study
Developing detailed plans for implementation
The three major classifications of research questions are
Those that seek to describe a phenomenon or population
Those that seek to quantify the nature of relationships
Those that seek to investigate causality
Three conditions must be met to establish causality:
The cause must precede the effect
The probability that the cause influenced the efect must be est.
Rival explanations for the effect must be ruled out