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Soma Clin Clin1 Clinical Anatomy
Review for Clinical Anatomy Final
Name the four types of tissue
What is the function of cilia?
Helps move stuff
What is the function of micovili?
Increases cellular surface area for absorption
What cell type might contain cilia or microvilli?
Where would one fine ciliated cells?
What are the four functions of epithelial tissues?
Definition of a tissue.
Groups of cells that perform the same general function.
Definition of an organ.
Two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions.
Give two examples of regular dense connective tissue.
What major cell type of CT has great strength, yet is flexible?
It's like silly putty- flexible but doesn't bounce back if stretched.
Three layers of skin
What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?
What is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
Which skin layer has the best blood supply?
No clue. Definitely not the epidermis.
What type of cells make up the epidermis?
Startified squamous (keratinized) cells
What type of tissues make up with dermis?
Fibrous connective tissue
What type of tissue makes up the hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer?
Loose fibrous CT
What type of tissue makes up the dermis?
Dense, irregular fibrous CT
A mishmosh of fibers that results in elasticity and strength for skin
Name the three types of muscle tissue.
What two types of muscle tissue are involuntary?
What comprises the central nervous system?
What comprises the peripheral nervous system?
PNS connects the CNS to other body parts
(If it's named, it's peripheral)
Name the five parts of the neuron.
Axon (can be mylenated)
Synaptic knob and vesicles
What are neurons sensitive to?
Name the three layers of meninges, from superficial to deep.
In certain regions, the Dura Mater splits into two layers forming what?
What do dural sinuses return?
Venous blood from the brain back to the heart
What space in the brain contains CSF?
Sub-arachnoid space; ventricles
What secretes CSF?
They're specialized capillaries in the pia mater that project into the ventricles and secrete CSF
Where are ventricles found in the brain?
In the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
Where is CSF absorbed?
CSF is absorbed by tiny, finger-like projections called arachnoid granulations that project from the subarachnoid space into the blood-filled dural sinuses.
Function of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
Primary motor area
(The motor is in the front)
Function of the parietal lobe.
Primary sensory area.
(Pain in the butt)
Grey matter (unmylenated neurons) are found where in the brain?
In the middle; it makes up a majority of the cerebrum.
What are the two main functions of the cerebellum?
Coordinates skeletal muscle activity
Maintains posture (error correction)
What is a dermatome?
Regions of skin innervated from nerve fibers that originate from a specific spinal cord level
Where in the SC does a reflex signal enter?
dorsal, leaves ventral
Where do spinal nerves arise?
Lumbar, sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves travel as a bundle through the spinal canal.
What two roots form each spinal nerve, and what do they control?
Dorsal root (sensory)
Ventral root (motor)
What is the ANS?
Autonomic nervous system
Part of the PNS that functions without conscious effort.
Where does the SNS originate?
T1 through L2 spinal segments
Sympathetic division is also called the thoracolumbar division
Where does the PNS originate?
Branstem and spinal cord from segments S2-S4
Parasympathetic division also called the "craniosacral" division.
What is called the "master gland?" Why?
Because of its many roles- secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual maturity, lactation, adrenal gland scertion and blood pressure.
What is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
Growth hormone (GH)
Hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland:
Oxytocin (calcium regulation/ bone building)
What's the infundibulum?
Houses the pituitary gland in the hypothalamus
What does the pancreas secrete?
(endo part)- secretes insulin and glucagon that control blood sugar
(exo part)- secretes digestive juice through a duct
Other name for adrenals
What do the adrenals do?
Secrete hormones that stimulate SNS
What gland shrinks with age?
What does the thymus secrete?
Hormones involved with immunity
What gland is involved with circadian rhythm?
Pineal gland- secretes melatonin.