Clin1 Final

Card Set Information

Clin1 Final
2011-07-13 22:07:13
Soma Clin Clin1 Clinical Anatomy

Review for Clinical Anatomy Final
Show Answers:

  1. Name the four types of tissue
    • Epithelial
    • Nervous
    • Muscle
    • Connective
  2. What is the function of cilia?
    Helps move stuff
  3. What is the function of micovili?
    Increases cellular surface area for absorption
  4. What cell type might contain cilia or microvilli?
    Simple columnar
  5. Where would one fine ciliated cells?
    • Reproductive tubes
    • Esophagus
  6. What are the four functions of epithelial tissues?
    • Protection
    • Secretion
    • Absorption
    • Excretion
  7. Definition of a tissue.
    Groups of cells that perform the same general function.
  8. Definition of an organ.
    Two or more kinds of tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions.
  9. Give two examples of regular dense connective tissue.
    • Tendons
    • Ligaments
  10. What major cell type of CT has great strength, yet is flexible?
    • Collagen
    • It's like silly putty- flexible but doesn't bounce back if stretched.
  11. Three layers of skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subcutaneous (hypodermis)
  12. What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?
    Stratum basale
  13. What is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
    Stratum corneum
  14. Which skin layer has the best blood supply?
    No clue. Definitely not the epidermis.
  15. What type of cells make up the epidermis?
    Startified squamous (keratinized) cells
  16. What type of tissues make up with dermis?
    • Fibrous connective tissue
    • Epithelial tissue
  17. What type of tissue makes up the hypodermis (subcutaneous) layer?
    Loose fibrous CT
  18. What type of tissue makes up the dermis?
    • Dense, irregular fibrous CT
    • A mishmosh of fibers that results in elasticity and strength for skin
  19. Name the three types of muscle tissue.
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  20. What two types of muscle tissue are involuntary?
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  21. What comprises the central nervous system?
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  22. What comprises the peripheral nervous system?
    • Everything else
    • PNS connects the CNS to other body parts
    • (If it's named, it's peripheral)
  23. Name the five parts of the neuron.
    • Cell body
    • Dendrites
    • Nucleus
    • Axon (can be mylenated)
    • Synaptic knob and vesicles
  24. What are neurons sensitive to?
  25. Name the three layers of meninges, from superficial to deep.
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  26. In certain regions, the Dura Mater splits into two layers forming what?
    Dural sinuses
  27. What do dural sinuses return?
    Venous blood from the brain back to the heart
  28. What space in the brain contains CSF?
    Sub-arachnoid space; ventricles
  29. What secretes CSF?
    • Choroid plexuses
    • They're specialized capillaries in the pia mater that project into the ventricles and secrete CSF
  30. Where are ventricles found in the brain?
    • In the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem
    • Contain CSF
  31. Where is CSF absorbed?
    • Dural sinuses
    • CSF is absorbed by tiny, finger-like projections called arachnoid granulations that project from the subarachnoid space into the blood-filled dural sinuses.
  32. Function of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
    • Primary motor area
    • (The motor is in the front)
  33. Function of the parietal lobe.
    • Primary sensory area.
    • (Pain in the butt)
  34. Grey matter (unmylenated neurons) are found where in the brain?
    In the middle; it makes up a majority of the cerebrum.
  35. What are the two main functions of the cerebellum?
    • Coordinates skeletal muscle activity
    • Maintains posture (error correction)
  36. What is a dermatome?
    Regions of skin innervated from nerve fibers that originate from a specific spinal cord level
  37. Where in the SC does a reflex signal enter?
    dorsal, leaves ventral
  38. Where do spinal nerves arise?
    Lumbar, sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves travel as a bundle through the spinal canal.
  39. What two roots form each spinal nerve, and what do they control?
    • Dorsal root (sensory)
    • Ventral root (motor)
  40. What is the ANS?
    • Autonomic nervous system
    • Part of the PNS that functions without conscious effort.
  41. Where does the SNS originate?
    • T1 through L2 spinal segments
    • Sympathetic division is also called the thoracolumbar division
  42. Where does the PNS originate?
    • Branstem and spinal cord from segments S2-S4
    • Parasympathetic division also called the "craniosacral" division.
  43. What is called the "master gland?" Why?
    • Pituitary gland
    • Because of its many roles- secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual maturity, lactation, adrenal gland scertion and blood pressure.
  44. What is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland?
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Prolactin
    • TSH
  45. Hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland:
    • Antidiuretic hormone
    • Oxytocin (calcium regulation/ bone building)
  46. What's the infundibulum?
    Houses the pituitary gland in the hypothalamus
  47. What does the pancreas secrete?
    • (endo part)- secretes insulin and glucagon that control blood sugar
    • (exo part)- secretes digestive juice through a duct
  48. Other name for adrenals
    Suprarenal glands
  49. What do the adrenals do?
    Secrete hormones that stimulate SNS
  50. What gland shrinks with age?
  51. What does the thymus secrete?
    Hormones involved with immunity
  52. What gland is involved with circadian rhythm?
    Pineal gland- secretes melatonin.