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- Enlightenment - Saint-Simon, Laplace, Comte
- Vienna - early 20th c. - logical positivism
- based on sense, experience, and postitive verification. Everything can be explained and predicted
- everything can be proven empirically
- critiques and amends positivism
- not based on unchallengeable foundations, but on human conjectures
- NOT relativism
- objective truth
- Karl Popper
- it is impossible to verify if a belief is true
- critiques society and culture
- from a sociological standpoint, critical theory seeks to change society as a whole through explanations of the limitations of our fundamental concepts in our knowledge system.
knowledge is constructed by the learner, an active organism seeking meaning
- some ideas or concepts are independent of experience and some truth is known by reason alone (a priori knowledge-not dependent on experience; true by definition: a black cat is black)
- reason is the starting point for all knowledge
- "innate knowledge"
- some ideas or concepts are independent of experience and truth must be established by reference to experience alone.
- sense experience
- (a posteriori - dependent on experience - "desks are brown"=not always true)
- "Black cats are black" is a tautologous statement
- links practice and theory
- intelligent practiceJohn Dewey
- conscious experience
- structures of consciousness, phenomena in acts of consciousness
noesis and noema
- every act has a noesis: gives meaning or sense to an intentional act
- and a noema: object of the act