Psychology week 1

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Psychology week 1
2011-07-14 12:12:43
Pregnancy etc

Week 1
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  1. disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele
    sickle-cell trait
  2. people's beliefs about their own abilities and talents
  3. effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by a society mate and pass along their genes
  4. surgical removal of infant from the uterus through an incision made in the mother's abdomen
    cesarean section (C-section)
  5. a tool that enables researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
  6. theory proposing that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software
    information-processing theory
  7. prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic uid through the mother's abdomen
  8. description of how various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts
    life-course perspective
  9. extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic
  10. the branch of genetics that studies the inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits
    behavioral genetics
  11. the result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm; also called fraternal twins
    dizygotic twins
  12. physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging conditions
  13. developmental research design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
    sequential design
  14. outer layer of the embryo, which will become the hair, the outer layer of skin, and the nervous system
  15. model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging
    selective optimization with compensation (SOC) model
  16. an expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
    correlation coefficient
  17. principle of physical growth that states that structures nearest the center of the body develop first
    proximodistal principle
  18. watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
    systematic observation
  19. person familiar with childbirth who provides emotional and physical support throughout labor and delivery
  20. a genotype is manifested in reaction to the environment where development takes place, so a single genotype can lead to a range of phenotypes
    reaction range
  21. people's answers to questions about the topic of interest
  22. broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers
  23. social settings that a person may not experience first-hand but that still influence development
  24. wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
    cerebral cortex
  25. method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it
    qualitative research
  26. term given to the zygote once it is completely embedded in the uterine wall
  27. longest period of prenatal development, extending from the 9th until the 38th week after conception
    period of the fetus
  28. fertilized egg
  29. disorder in which the embryo's neural tube does not close properly
    spina bifida
  30. the factor being manipulated
    independent variable
  31. provides connections across microsystems
  32. the number of infants out of 1,000 births who die before their first birthday
    infant mortality
  33. when the alleles in a pair of chromosomes are the same
  34. a useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development
    biopsychosocial framework
  35. the cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded
  36. middle layer of the embryo, which becomes the muscles, bones, and circulatory system
  37. allele whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele
  38. inner sac in which the developing child rests
  39. problem with cross-sectional designs in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processes
    cohort effects
  40. appearance of the top of the baby's head during labor
  41. the many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human
    prenatal development
  42. situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely
    incomplete dominance
  43. physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interaction between one's genes and the environment
  44. when phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes
    polygenic inheritance
  45. the behavior being observed
    dependent variable
  46. whether there is just one path of development or several paths
    universal versus context-specific development issue
  47. a principle of physical growth that states that structures nearest the head develop first
    cephalocaudal principle
  48. threadlike structures in the nuclei of cells that contain genetic material
  49. newborns who weigh less than 1,500-grams (3 pounds)
    very low birth weight
  50. forces within a family that make siblings different from one another
    nonshared environmental influences
  51. a birth complication in which umbilical blood flow is disrupted and the infant does not receive adequate oxygen
  52. disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant
    fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  53. group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions
  54. whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity)
    continuity-discontinuity issue
  55. progressive and fatal type of dementia caused by dominant alleles
    Huntington's disease
  56. learning that occurs by simply watching how others behave
    imitation (observational learning)
  57. molecule composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis of heredity
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  58. first 22 pairs of chromosomes
  59. technique in which people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
    naturalistic observation
  60. a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
  61. the multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time
    human development
  62. variations of genes
  63. fluid that surrounds the fetus
    amniotic fluid
  64. prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus
  65. an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
  66. theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages
    psychodynamic theories
  67. substance that protects the fetus's skin during development
  68. 23rd pair of chromosomes; these determine the sex of the child
    sex chromosomes
  69. person's hereditary makeup
  70. technique in which a researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest
    structured observations
  71. Erikson's proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands
    psychosocial theory
  72. age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately; typically at 7 months after conception
    age of viability
  73. the result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals; also called identical twins
    monozygotic twins
  74. extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it does
  75. step in which the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with a woman's blood vessels
  76. an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
  77. in Erikson's theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance
    epigenetic principle
  78. theory based on idea that human development is inseparable from the environmental contexts in which a person develops
    ecological theory
  79. when the alleles in a pair of chromosomes differ from each other
  80. inner layer of the embryo, which becomes the lungs and the digestive system
  81. newborns who weigh less than 1,000 grams (2 pounds)
    extremely low birth weight
  82. a measure (derived from a correlation coefficient) of the extent to which a trait or characteristic is inherited
    heritability coefficient
  83. inherited disorder in which the infant lacks a liver enzyme
    phenylketonuria (PKU)
  84. form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed
  85. field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth
    fetal medicine
  86. process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one's genetic makeup
  87. process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a woman's uterus
    in vitro fertilization
  88. learning paradigm in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
    operant conditioning
  89. small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that will eventually develop into a baby
    germ disc
  90. structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta
    umbilical cord
  91. study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages
    cross-sectional study
  92. investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
    correlational study
  93. a special type of longitudinal design in which participants are tested repeatedly over a span of days or weeks, typically with the aim of observing change directly as it occurs
    microgenetic study
  94. structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child
  95. view that human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework
    life-span perspective
  96. a consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
  97. prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion
    chorionic villus sampling
  98. the people and objects in an individual's immediate environment
  99. a systematic way of manipulating the key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
  100. babies born before the 36th week after conception
    preterm (premature)
  101. the degree to which genetic or hereditary influences (nature) and experiential or environmental influences (nurture) determine the kind of person you are
    nature-nurture issue
  102. a subset of the population
  103. newborns who weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds)
    low birth weight