Chapter 13

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  1. Henry's Law
    • c = kP
    • solubility (in mol/L) = Henry's law constant (in mol/L·atm) x partial pressure (atm)
    • it's a law stating the concentration of a gas in a solution is proportional to the pressure of that gas over the solution
  2. colloid
    stable but non-homogenous mixtures; an intermediate between a stable solution and unstable heterogeneous mixtures
  3. hard water
    water that has high mineral content, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions
  4. ion exchange
    an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex
  5. amino acid
    monomers of proteins; organic compounds composed of an amine and carboxyl groups in the same molecule
  6. random coil
    a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units. It is not one specific shape, but a statistical distribution of shapes for all the chains in a population of macromolecules
  7. mononucelotide
    monomers of nucleic acids; consists of an N-containing base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
  8. crystal defect
    periods of interruption in the regular pattern of a crystalline solid's exhibit periodic crystal structure
  9. phase
    a physically distinctive form of matter, such as a solid, liquid, gas; it is generally characterized by having relatively uniform chemical and physical properties
  10. crosslink
    ionic or covalent bonds that link one polymer chain to another
  11. doping
    the practice of adding impurities to something
  12. plastic
    polymers of high molecular mass; made up of monomers that are organic compounds (are either natural or synthetic)
  13. ceramic
    an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling; such materials may have a crystalline or amorphous structure (e.g. glass)
  14. soap
    the salt of a strong base (metal hydroxide) and a fatty acid (aka a carboxylic acid with a long hydrocarbon chain)
  15. in a saturated solution, there is a dynamic equillibrium between the solid phase and the solvated phase; the solid phase __________ at the same rate as the solvated phase ___________
    dissolves; crystalizes
  16. through the influence of intermolecular forces among the protein's side chains, soluble proteins have __________ exteriors, and ________ interiors
    polar-ionic exteriors, and nonpolar interiors
  17. solvation
    the process of surrounding a solute particle with solvent particles; solvation in water is called hydration
  18. Molarity (M)
    • mol of solute/volume (L) of solution
    • because volume is affected by temperature, MOLARITY IS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE
  19. molality (m)
    • mol of solute/mass of solvent (in kg)
    • better for problems where temperature or density (volume) change B/C it's temperature independent (used in BP/FB problems)
  20. boiling point
    the temperature at which its vapor pressure equals the external pressure; the addition of a solute LOWERS the vapor pressure so it has to be heated to a HIGHER temperature in order to boil
  21. the boiling point of a solution (Tb) is always _______ than the boiling point of the pure solvent (Tb0)
  22. boiling point of a solution
    • ΔTb = Kbm
    • boiling point = molal boiling point elevation CONSTANT x molality (mol solute/kg solvent)
    • ΔTb=Tb - Tb0 (aka boiling point = boiling point of the soution minus the boiling point of the solvent)
  23. the addition of a solute to a liquid (solvent) will ______ the FREEZING point
    LOWER (oppsite of b.p.); think lowering is why you put the negative sign in front
  24. freezing point of a solution
    • ΔTf = -Kfm
    • freezing point = - molal freezing point elevation CONSTANT (for solvent only) x molality (mol solute/kg solvent)
    • ΔTf=Tf - Tf0 (aka freezing point = freezing point of the soution minus the freezing point of the solvent)
  25. osmosis
    the tendency for solvent to flow from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration (this time concentration means the concentration of solute, so if there's more solute on one side than another the solvent will GO to that side to try to 'dilute' it almost)
  26. osmotic pressure
    the amount of pressure necessary to stop osmosis (essentially the strong/maximal pressure exerted on the semi-permeable membrane by the side with more volume [the side where a lot of solvent dissolved into because it had a high concentration of solute]); it can be simulated by us!
  27. magnitude of osmotic pressure =
    • π
    • π = MRT which means...
    • osmot. pressure = (molarity of the solution)(funky gas constant)(temperature in Kelvin)
  28. Crenation
    the contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis
  29. Hemolysis
    when water flows into a cell causing it to swell/burst because the solute concentration inside the cell is higher meaning the osmotic pressure of the intracellular fluid of a red blood cell is hIGHER than that of the solution surrounding the cell
  30. colligative properties
    properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles NOT the identity of the solute particles
  31. electrolytes
    substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved (solution will conduct electrical current)
  32. van't Hoff factor (i)
    • used to modify the colligative property expressions to reflect the (possible) dissociation of a solute; inserted in to the colligative property expressions (BP, FP, and osmotic pressure)
    • i = # ions in solutions / # formula units in solution
  33. the van't Hoff factor should be an integer for a ______ electrolyte:
    strong electrolyte; this is because a strong electrolyte is supposed to dissociate completely
  34. Brownian motion
    the random drifting of particles suspended in a fluid (liquid or gas)
  35. Tyndall effect
    when a beam of light passes through a colloid the beam of light is visible when viewed perpendicularly; if a beam of light passes through a true solution, it isn't visible from that perspective
  36. flocculation
    a process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flakes due to a change in concentration of ions or the introduction of ions in the dispersion
  37. read 541-542
Card Set:
Chapter 13
2012-07-01 18:45:57

Properties of Mixtures
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