Med Math Ch 5

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Author:
cswett
ID:
94151
Filename:
Med Math Ch 5
Updated:
2011-07-15 21:47:40
Tags:
Intro Pharm Med Math
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Description:
Med Math Ch 5 Drug Preparations and Equipment to Measure Doses
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  1. XL
    • extended length
    • tablets
  2. CD
    controlled dose (tablets)
  3. SR
    sustained release (tablets)
  4. Sublingual Tablets
    • placed under tongue - dissolve quickly
    • medication is absorbed through capillaries so it reached patents circulation w/o passing through gastrointestinal tract
  5. Capsules
    • gelatin - hold a drug in solid or liquid form
    • Avoid opening capsules - check with pharmacist before opening to combine with food

    Do not open capsules called - spansule, timespan, time release, or sustained relsease
  6. Magmas
    suspension with large bulky particles - Milk of Magnesia
  7. Gels
    • Suspensions that contain small particles
    • eg magnesium hydroxide gel
  8. Emulsions
    creamy, white suspension of fats or oils in an agent that reduces surface tension and makes them easier to swallow - emulsified castor oil
  9. Powders
    dry, finely ground drugs - must be reconstituted according to package directions

    • When you reconstitute a powder write on the label:
    • 1. date
    • 2. time
    • 3. your initials
    • 4. solution you made
  10. Tablets
    • powdered drug that has ingredients to help bind it into shape
    • - most may be crushed

    Scored tablets may be cut

    Coated tablets - some may be crushed - check with pharmacist
  11. Enteric-coated tablets
    do not crush

    - dissolves in alkaline small intestine - not in acidic stomach
  12. Coded tablets
    have numbers, letters or both on tablet for identification
  13. Syrup
    drug in sugary solution

    contraindicated for patients with diabetes mellitus
  14. Elixers
    • hydroalcoholic liquid concentrations of drug
    • (sugar & alcohol)
    • contraindicated for diabetes mellitus & history of alcoholism
  15. Fluidexracts & Tincture
    • alcoholic liquid concentrations of a drug
    • very potent - ordered in small amounts
    • tinctures ordered in drops
    • fluidextracts are most concentrated of all liquids - average dose is 2 tsp or less
  16. Parenteral Route
    ID
    Sub Q
    IM
    IV
    IVPB
    • -by injection
    • ID - intradermal
    • Sub Q - subcutaneous
    • IM - intramuscular
    • IV - intravenous
    • IVPB - intravenous piggyback
  17. Topical route
    Aerosol powders or liquids - sprayed onto skin or mucous membrane (inhalers)

    • Powders
    • Creams
    • Ointments - in petroleum or lanolin base for topical use
    • -ointments for the eye are ophthalmic

    Pastes - thick ointments for skin - absorb secreations & soften skin

    Suppositories - commanly cocoa butter

    Transdermal medications - drug molecules in polymer patch that is applied to the skin - slowly released and absorbed through the skin

    Topical drops - water or saline - treat eyes, ears, nose
  18. Pouring liquids
    1. Pour to a line - never estimate a dose between lines

    2. Pour liquids at eye level and on a flat surface - measure to the meniscus
  19. Syringe
    4 types of syringe
    • gauge - indicates the diameter of the needle
    • larger # = smaller diameter

    • when preparing a dose:
    • -hold syringe with needle up & draw down medication into barrel

    • 3-mL - mL to the nearest tenth
    • 1 -mL - precision syringe - tuberculin syringe
    • - marked in hundredths of mL - most accurate
    • 100 unit insulin syringe
    • 50 unit insulin syringe
  20. Rounding on syringes
    3 - ml
    1 - mL
    • 3-mL syringe
    • mL = carry out decimal two places & round to tenth
    • minim = carry to tenth and round to whole number

    • 1 - mL syringe
    • mL = carry 3 places & round to hundredth
    • minim = carry two places & round to tenth

    do not round for pediatric patients
  21. needle sizes
    ID
    sub Q
    IM
    IV
    • intradermal - 1 to 1.5 cm long & 25G - short bevel
    • subcutaneous - 1.5 to 2 cm long - 25G to 23G - medium bevels
    • intramuscular - 2.5 to 7.5 cm long - 23G to 18 G - medium bevels
    • intravenous - 1" to 3" long - 25G to 14G - ling bevels
  22. how to choose a needle
    • 1. guage - inside diameter - smaller gauge = larger dia
    • 2. Bevel - angle of opening
    • 3. Length - distance from tip to hub of needle

    • choose based on:
    • 1. route of administration
    • 2. size and condition of patient
    • 3. amount of adipose tissue present at the site

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