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2011-07-16 00:33:57
BIOL Mitosis

Study Cards for Chapter 12 "Cell Cycle and Mitosis"
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  1. Gametes form as a result of:
  2. Growth and Repair in an organism will occur via:
  3. Define the cell cycle.
    The creation, operational processes, and division of a cell.
  4. What is a daughter cell?
    One of the two cells produced as a result of mitosis.
  5. Define genome.
    all of the genetic information within a cell
  6. What is the haploid number?
    half of the total number of chromosomes
  7. What is the diploid number?
    the total number of chromosomes in a cell
  8. What is the relationship between the haploid and diploid number?
    The diploid number is twice the haploid number.
  9. How is a somatic cell different from a gamete?
    Somatic cells are regular body cells and contain the diploid number of chromosomes. Gametes are sperm/eggs and contain the haploid number of chromosomes.
  10. Which of our cells will have 2n chromosomes?
    somatic cells
  11. Which of our cells will have n chromosomes?
  12. Which cellular process, mitosis or meiosis, produces genetically identical daughter cells?
  13. True or False: Unicellular organisms utilize mitosis to reproduce.
  14. True or False: Multicellular organisms utilize mitosis for growth and development.
  15. True or False: Multicellular organisms utilize meiosis for tissue repair.
    False - they utilize mitosis for tissue repair
  16. The sum of all genetic information inside a cell is known as the:
  17. Which organism, prokaryotic or eukaryotic, will have longer strands of DNA, in some cases up to 2 meters?
  18. True or False: Every eukaryotic organism has a set number of chromosomes.
  19. Which organism has the fewest chromosomes? Humans, horses, or dogs?
  20. How many individual chromosomes do humans have?
  21. After mitosis, each daughter cell must have the correct number of:
  22. What are the two main classes of cells in the body?
    somatic cells and gametes
  23. The diploid number is represented by what symbol?
  24. What is the haploid number for humans?
  25. Chromosomes duplicate to form:
    sister chromatids
  26. After replication each of the 46 chromosomes will have how many sister chromatids?
  27. What is a sister chromatid?
    The identical chromosome formed during replication.
  28. How does the mitotic spindle form?
    microtubules called "asters" radiate out from the centrosome towards the metaphase plate
  29. The area where to two sister chromatids join is known as the:
  30. Describe the kinetichore.
    protein on the centromere where the microtubules will attach to each sister chromatid
  31. What is the function of a kinetichore microtubule?
    attaches to a chromosome pair in order to seperate them
  32. True or False: Non-kinetichore microtubules pull apart chromosome pairs.
    False - they do not attach to an chromosome's kinetichore and instead overlap in the middle.
  33. What are the three primary phases of the cell cycle?
    Interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
  34. In which phase of the cell cycle does a cell spend most of it's time?
  35. Define Interphase.
    time from when a cell forms until it begins the mitotic process
  36. The primary function of the G1 phase of interphase is to:
    increase the cell's size
  37. What is the primary event of S phase of interphase?
    DNA replication
  38. True or False: DNA replication is completed before mitosis begins.
  39. A further increase in cell size, the replication of organelles, and the check to ensure proper DNA replication occur during which phase of interphase?
  40. When does DNA replication occur?
    during the S phase of interphase
  41. List the stages of mitosis.
    • prophase
    • prometaphase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  42. Mitosis is the process of:
    nuclear division
  43. Define centromere.
    area where two identical sister chromatids join
  44. The microtubule organizing center is known as the:
  45. True or False: Centrioles are essential to the mitotic process.
    False - they are non-essential
  46. Microtubules that radiate out from the centrosome are known as:
  47. Microtubules that actually attach to a chromosome pair are known as:
    kinetichore microtubules
  48. Microtubules that overlap at the center of a cell and possibly function to elongate the mitotic spindle and cell for division are called:
    non-kinetichore microtubules
  49. The G1 phase of mitosis is also known as the:
    1st gap
  50. The division of the nucleus is completed during the process known as:
  51. The division of the cytoplasm is completed during the process of:
  52. In which phase of mitosis are both sister chromatids attached to microtubules?
  53. In which phase of mitosis are the centrioles visible?
    interphase G2
  54. In which phase of mitosis are the centrosomes at opposite poles?
  55. In which phase of mitosis do the centrosomes move towards opposite poles?
  56. In which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes condense and the sister chromatids become visible?
  57. In which phase do the chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate?
    metaphase plate
  58. In which phase do the chromosomes pull towards opposite poles?
  59. In which phase do daughter cells form nuclei and nuclear envelopes?
  60. In which phase do we find a decrease in the condensation of chromosomes?
  61. In which phase does the early mitotic spindle form?
  62. In which phase do we see elongation of the cell?
  63. In which phase do we find the fragmentation of the nuclear envelope?
  64. In which phase do we see interaction of non-kinetichore microtubules?
  65. In which phase does the kinetichore become visible on the sister chromatids?
  66. In which phase is the nucleolus still visible?
    interphase G2
  67. In which phase do the microtubules begin to attach?
  68. In which phase do microtubules begin to move into the center of the cell?
  69. In which phase does the nucleolus disappear?
  70. In which phase is the nucleus still surrounded by the nuclear envelope?
    interphase G2
  71. In which phase do we see separation of sister chromatids?
  72. What are the four characteristics discussed of interphase G2?
    • nucleus surrounded by nuclear envelope
    • nucleolus still visible
    • chromosomes have duplicated, but are indistinguishable
    • centrosomes have duplicated
  73. What are the four characteristics discussed in prophase?
    • nucleolus disappears
    • chromosomes condense and become visible
    • early mitotic spindle forms
    • centrosomes begin to migrate to the poles
  74. What are the four characteristics discussed in prometaphase?
    • nuclear envelope fragments
    • microtubules invade the area of the nucleus
    • kinetichore microtubules attach to the chromatids
    • non-kinetichore microtubules begin to interact
  75. What are the three characteristics discussed in metaphase?
    • centrosomes are at opposite poles
    • sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate
    • within each chromosome, each sister chromatid is attached to microtubules from opposite end of the cell
  76. What are the four characteristics discussed regarding anaphase?
    • cleaving of the cohesion proteins that bind the sister chromatids
    • seperated chromatids become daughter chromosomes
    • chromosomes are pulled towards the poles as microtubules shorten
    • elongation of the cell
  77. What are the four discussed characteristics of telophase?
    • daughter cells begin to form nuclei
    • nuclear envelope begins to form
    • nucleuolus begins to form
    • chromosomes become less condensed
  78. True or False: When mitosis is completed you have two identical daughter cells.
    False - you have one cell with two identical nuclei
  79. The contractile ring of microfilaments that faciliates cytokinesis is known as the:
    cleavage furrow
  80. Which phase of mitosis is the shortest?
  81. Which phase of mitosis is the longest, and how long is it?
    metaphase, about 20 minutes
  82. What occurs during cytokinesis?
    division of the cytoplasm
  83. What is apoptosis?
    programmed cell death
  84. True or False: At the end of cytokinesis you have two genetically identical daughter cells.
  85. What does the G1 checkpoint assess?
    the DNA of the parent cell
  86. What does the G2 checkpoint assess?
    the DNA replication process
  87. What two things does the S checkpoint assess?
    • proper elongation of the cell
    • organelle replication
  88. What does the M checkpoint assess?
    proper alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate
  89. The process of destroying old or corrupted cells is known as:
  90. The formation of cancer cells is known as:
  91. What are the three characteristics of cancer cells?
    • lack of differentiation or purpose
    • abnormal nuclei
    • cells that reproduce out of control forming tumors
  92. List three discussed characteristics of abnormal nuclei in cancer cells.
    • mutated DNA
    • wrong amount of genetic material
    • enlarged nucleus