Computers

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Faithie
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94166
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Computers
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2011-08-20 04:43:30
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Info Comm System
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Info Comm System
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  1. A computer _________ data in a device called the CPU.
    processing
  2. A computer processes data in a device called the__________or _______. The CPU could be considered the brain of the computer.
    central processing unit or CPU
  3. A computer must ______ data so that it will be available for processing. Computers typically have more than one location for storing data, depending on how the data is being used. Memory is an area of the computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed.
    store
  4. A computer must store data so that it will be available for processing. Computers typically have more than one _________ for storing data, depending on how the data is being used. Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing.
    location
  5. ___________(hard drives, disks, tapes, etc.) is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis while it is not needed for processing.
    Storage
  6. The results produced by a computer are known as __________.
    computer output
  7. __________ is the results produced by a computer. The word "output" is also a verb that means the process of producing output. Some examples of computer output include reports, documents, music, graphs, and pictures. An output device displays, prints, or transmits the results of processing
    Computer output
  8. The term "___________" refers to the computer itself and to components called peripheral devices that expand the computer's input, output, and storage capabilities.
    hardware
  9. Examples of __________include the monitor, hard drives, memory, the CPU, printers, etc.
    hardware
  10. Flash memory drives plug into the computer's ______ ports and have memory capacities of up to many gigabytes
    USB
  11. When plugged into a USB port, flash memory drives show up as an _________ and are a convenient way to transport and transfer data.
    external drive
  12. _________ allows one or more words in a document to act as a link to another document
    Hypertext
  13. __________allows you to click on text to be taken to another part of the same page, or a different document or web page altogether. Hypertext is the basis of today's world wide web--you click on hypertext links to be taken from one webpage to the next.
    Hypertext
  14. Computer hardware in and of itself does not provide a particularly useful tool. To be useful, a computer requires a computer program or ________, which is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to perform a particular task.
    software
  15. ____________is what tells the computer what to do. There are many types of software--for instance, right now you are using web browsing software to view this website. Computers can become even more effective when connected to other computers so that people can share information.
    Computer software
  16. Traditionally, computers havand been classified into four categories, from least to most powerful, are __________,_________,_________&_________
    microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframe computers, and supercomputers
  17. A computer is placed in one of these categories based on its technology, physical size,_________ , and cost.
    performance
  18. ____________also known as personal computers, are typically found in homes and small businesses. Prices range from $500 to $5,000 but consumers typically purchase systems in the middle of this range, spending from $1,000 to $2,000
    Microcomputers
  19. Microcomputers are also known as personal computers, and is most likely the type of computer you are using right now to access the internet. One measure of microcomputer speed is the speed of the processor, which is measured in _______ (Mhz) or ______ (Ghz).
    megahertz or gigihertz
  20. A __________ is somewhat more powerful than a microcomputer and can carry out the processing tasks for several people working at terminals that are connected to the minicomputer
    minicomputer
  21. An example of a minicomputer would be a _____________
    mid-range server
  22. A __________ is an input and output device that resembles a microcomputer because it has a keyboard and screen
    terminal
  23. Unlike a microcomputer, however, a __________does not have processing capability. When you input a processing request from a terminal, your request is transmitted to a computer (i.e. a minicomputer or mainframe) which processes data as necessary, then sends the results back to your terminal.
    terminal
  24. ___________ are large, fast, and fairly expensive computers, generally used by business or government to provide centralized storage, processing and management for large amounts of data.
    Mainframes
  25. Like a minicomputer, one __________ computer carries out processing tasks for multiple users, who input processing requests from terminals. However, a mainframe generally services more users than a minicomputer--some mainframes handle thousands of users
    mainframe
  26. ___________ are physical materials that provide long-term storage for computer data.
    Storage media
  27. Examples of storage media include
    hard drives, tape backups, etc
  28. A hard drive can store ________ of characters on a non-removable disk platter
    billions
  29. A ________ is mounted inside the system unit; an external light indicates when the hard disk drive is in use
    hard disk drive
  30. A CD-ROM drive and a ___ drive are storage devices that use laser technology to read data from optical disks
    dvd
  31. A _______ drive is a storage device that writes data on floppy disks
    floppy
  32. A typical microcomputer system has a ____________drive that stores as many as 1.44 million characters of data on one floppy disk. A light indicates when the floppy disk drive is in use--a warning not to remove your disk until the light goes out.
    3 1/2-inch floppy disk
  33. Most of the computers used in people's homes are based on one of two major platforms _________and _________
    PCs and Macs
  34. pc and mac stand for?
    Personal computers and macintosh
  35. Windows normally runs on the _______platform.
    PC
  36. Some people run other operating systems instead of Windows on their PC ex _____
    (i.e. Linux Redhat).
  37. A ____________is a collection of computers and other devices that have been connected in order to share data, hardware, and software
    computer network
  38. The world's largest network _________, provides many information services, but the most popular is the World Wide Web, often referred to simply as the Web.
    the Internet,
  39. The Internet refers to the world wide network which many business and home users are connected to today. The World Wide Web, which is what most people are actually talking about when they refer to "surfing the Web," is just one part of the Internet. The Internet offers other services as well, such as ______________
    FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
  40. If you type the formula a1+b1/2 into a spreadsheet cell. What is the first mathematical operation that occurs?
    Division
  41. In a math equation, the computer will calculate whatever is in the parentheses first. It then processes _________ next
    exponents
  42. In a spreadsheet, referring to a cell with an address such as $B$5 is called using a ______________.
    absolute address
  43. In a spreadsheet, how would you reference the range of cells in column B including rows 3 through 11, using relative addressing?
    B3:B11
  44. _____________computerize day-to-day office tasks. Things that are not office automation systems would be tasks which are not day-to-day tasks, like network
    Office automation systems
  45. Examples of office automation systems are
    E-mail, word processing, voice mail, scheduling, databases, and more
  46. The means by which humans and computers communicate is referred to as the __________
    user interface
  47. A _________ is a message displayed by the computer that asks for input from the user.
    prompt
  48. A _______ is an instruction you input to tell the computer to carry out a task.
    command
  49. __________ specifies the sequence and punctuation for command words and parameters
    Syntax
  50. __________ is a compiled language
    COBOL
  51. There are many computer languages of different types. COBOL is a compiled language; it is NOT an algebraic language. You will learn more on this later
  52. If you misspell a command word, leave out required punctuation, or type the command words out of order, you have made a ________ and the computer will display an error message.
    syntax error
  53. An interface that requires the user to type commands is referred to as a _________
    command-line
  54. An interface that requires the user to type commands is referred to as a command-line interface. This is in contrast to a ___________________________ (GUI) which is based on graphics, and typically a mouse to manipulate the graphics instead of a keyboard to type commands. If you use Windows, you're using a graphical user interface--you click on commands, you don't type them.
    graphical user
  55. __________buttons sometimes called "radio buttons," allow you to select only one of the options
    Round option (ex bubbles u color in on a survey)
  56. __________which allow you to select some or all of the options. Radio buttons are round, checkboxes are square.
    checkboxes,
  57. Square checkboxes allow you to select any or all of the options, as opposed to ______ buttons, which allow you to select only one option. (hint- radio buttons are those fill in the bubble option type of questions)
    radio round
  58. The more dots your screen displays in the matrix, the higher its __________
    resolution
  59. A monitor looks like it's displaying one big picture, but it is actually made up of thousands of little dots called pixels. The more pixels your screen has, the crisper the picture. The number of _______ you have is called your resolution. Common resolutions are 800x600 pixels, 1024x768 pixels, etc..
    pixels
  60. Software for accessing the World Wide Web is called a _____________
    browser
  61. You can search for information on a specific topic using a _________
    Search Engine
  62. ____________ refers to the ability of computers to solve problems and perform tasks that were once thought to be uniquely human.
    Artificial Intelligence
  63. Artificial Intelligence is often referred to as _________-
    AI
  64. An employee at IBM(ibm.com) would probably have the _________ name Ibm.com after the "at" symbol in his work e-mail address.
    domain
  65. The main ethical and moral implications of living in the digital age include information and _______________
    intellectual property rights
  66. The basic concepts of ethical behavior are responsibility, accountability, liability and due process
    Responsibility means accepting the consequences of your actions. Liability refers to the legal system that places responsibility on the guilty party and punishes them accordingly. Due process explains the established legal process and appeals procedure to ensure that the laws were properly applied
  67. Software is normally thought of as a set of ______________ for the computer and its associated data, which are stored in electronic format, that direct the computer to accomplish certain tasks.
    instructions
  68. People who illegally copy, distribute, or modify software are often called ________
    pirates
  69. _________ copies of software are referred to as pirated software
    Illegal
  70. A _______ is a legal contract which defines the ways in which you may use the computer program.
    license
  71. A ________ license allows the software to be used on all computers in one location.
    site
  72. ________ is "try before you buy" software
    Shareware
  73. Instead of purchasing software, you initially get a copy for free. If you want to use the product after a certain trial period, you must send in a __________
    registration fee
  74. Public domain software, or "________", is software that has been donated to the public, so it is not owned by the author
    freeware
  75. __________ is a feature supported by many word processors that enables you to generate form letters
    Mail Merge
  76. _________ software is a program designed for use by end-users.Most programs you use--word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, the banking program you interact with
    Applications
  77. The other type of software ________ is which are programs that interact with the computer at a very basic level (i.e. operating systems, compilers).
    Systems software,
  78. A __________ is an extra bit of information added to every piece of data that is transmitted to make sure it is transmitted accurately.
    parity bit
  79. A _________ allows some basic error-checking to verify that the data that has arrived on the other end is accurate; in other words, no info was lost or changed in the transmission.
    parity bit
  80. An _________ is essentially the controller of all activities that take place on your computer.
    Operating System
  81. The operating system is the first piece of software installed on a brand new computer. The most common operating system is __________-, for PC's. Other operating systems are Linux, and MacOS.
    Windows
  82. Any part of a computer system that might be used by a computer program is called a ____________
    resource.
  83. Examples of are _________ disk drive space, processor time, or memory capacity
    system resources
  84. __________ has multi-tasking; it allows you to run many different programs at once. For example, you might be running your email program (i.e. Outlook) in one window, surfing the web in Internet Explorer in another window, and running the Calculator program in a third _______.
    Windows
  85. ______ is an operating system that was developed in 1969 by AT&T's Bell Laboratories.
    UNIX
  86. Before you can store data on a disk, it must be __________. Floppy disks almost always come already formatted. Formatting a disk also erases the contents of the disk.
    formatted
  87. System software which helps the computer control a peripheral device, such as a printer or sound card, is called a ________.
    device driver
  88. __________ (i.e. printers, scanners, modems) don't just control themselves; they need pieces of software called device drivers which are specially designed to control them
    Peripheral devices
  89. A ____________ allows a programmer to create a program using english-like instructions.
    Programming Language
  90. There are many different _________ a programmer can choose from, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Some examples are C++, Fortran, and COBOL
    computer languages
  91. ________- provides a way for people to collaborate their efforts on a project
    Groupware
  92. Lotus Notes and Microsoft Exchange are popular examples of _______applications. They allow users to view the same information by copying files across a distributed system, share calendars, and handle email.
    groupware
  93. The purpose of groupware is to allow team members to work together even though they are in different physical locations.
  94. __________ software makes calculations based on numbers and formulas the user enters
    Spreadsheet
  95. A ________ file is the simplest kind of file, the computer just writes straight to it, without encoding it in computer language or doing any special kind of formatting to it.
    flat text
  96. You can use _________ software to control another computer remotely
    remote control
  97. Popular __________ includes VNC, LapLink, and PCanywhere
    remote control software
  98. Many operating systems are downwardly compatible which means that they can run programs meant for earlier versions. 4 example, you might be running Windows XP, but programs designed for an older version of Windows (i.e. Windows 95), should still run on your operating system. This is sometimes called _________
    backwards compatibility.
  99. A ________ is a set of keywords and grammar rules used to create instructions for a computer.ex:include C, C++, Pascal, Java, BASIC and assembly
    programming language
  100. In computer programming,________ refer to typographical errors and incorrect use of the programming language.include incorrect or missing punctuation, spelling errors, and omitting keywords.
    syntax errors
  101. A ___________ has a predefined meaning for the compiler which translates each line of programming code into the machine language that the computer can understand
    keyword
  102. Examples of _________ include READ, WRITE, IF, and THEN
    keywords
  103. The two types of _________are logic and syntax errors
    programming errors
  104. _______- occur when the program does not do what the programmer expects it to do and are the most difficult errors to debug. They occur even though the program contains no syntax errors
    Logic errors
  105. _________ stores its contents only as long as the computer is on
    RAM
  106. RAM stands for __________. RAM retains its contents only while the computer is on. Programs which are currently running are stored in RAM
    Random Access Memory
  107. There are two basic types of memory in a computer--RAM (Random Access Memory) and ROM (Read Only Memory). RAM can be written to and erased, in contrast to ROM, which is read only memory, and contains the basic instructions for the computer. ROM cannot be overwritten.
  108. To increase the speed of data access, a computer might use a
    __________, which is a special area in computer memory that holds data that you are most likely going to use soon
    cache
  109. The smallest unit of memory is _______.
    1 bit
  110. There are ______different characters that can be stored in 1 byte of memory
    256
  111. A ________ is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium such as a floppy disk, hard disk, or a CD
    file
  112. A unique set of letters and numbers that identifies a file is called a ___________.
    filename
  113. A filename might be followed by a which ___________normally describes the type of file.
    extension
  114. An example is a Microsoft Word document, it ends with the extension "doc" (i.e. myletter.doc). Another example is the extension "exe", which means that the file is an _________ (i.e. format.exe).
    executable
  115. A group of sectors is called a ________ . To speed up the reading and writing process, a disk drive normally handles a cluster at a time. The size of the cluster depends on the capacity of the disk and the disk drive's technical specifications.
    cluster
  116. A ________ is any special character you use when typing a filename. For example, if you use the "Search for Files" tool in Windows, and it tells you to type in the name of a file to find, you can type "st*". This would cause it to search for all filenames that start with "st". Another example of a wildcard is the question mark (?). If you type "st?re" that would match both "stare" and "store".
    wildcard
  117. An ________ tells the computer how to perform a specific task. A piece of software--a program--consists of one or more executable files, plus the data files. The executable is the file that contains the actual instructions to the computer; the other files just contain supporting data needed by the program (i.e. saved documents, pictures, etc.).
    executable file
  118. A ________ contains pictures, words, and numbers that you can view, save, print, edit, and send using executables made specifically for that task.
    data file
  119. ROM is programmed once at the factory, and cannot be _______ . It contains basic information for the system
    overwritten
  120. This is called ROM, or
    ___________
    Read-Only Memory.
  121. RAM, _______________ Memory, which can be written to and erased by the computer.
    Random-Access
  122. A utility can rearrange the files on a disk so that they are stored in contiguous, or back to back sectors of the disk.
    defragmentation
  123. Floppy disks, hard drives, cdrom drives, and dvd drives are random access devices, while ________ are sequential
    tape drives
  124. In windows, a __________ provides a way to refer to a particular storage device. This is necessary so that the computer knows which device to use for reading or writing. For example, on most machines Drive __ is the main hard drive, and Drive A is the floppy drive
    device letter, C
  125. An operating system maintains a list of files called a _______ or folder for each CD-ROM, DVD or disk.
    Directory
  126. The main directory of a drive is sometimes referred to as the _________
    root directory
  127. A file specification, more commonly known as the ________, consists of the drive, folder, filename, and extension that identifies a file.
    path
  128. A ____________-is a program which helps you find, rename, move, copy, and delete files or folders
    file manager
  129. An example of a file manager is _________
    windows explorer
  130. A _________is the substance that contains data, which can be a disk, tape, CD, paper, or DVD
    storage medium
  131. A backup made on magnetic tape is called a __________
    tape backup
  132. Each 1 or 0 that represents data is called __________
    a Bit
  133. Printers and scanners are examples of _________
    peripheral devices
  134. A scanner converts a page of text into a picture of dots. ____________ software examines this picture looking for text, checks each line and deciphers one character at a time.
    Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
  135. The minimum amount of _______ that is required to store one character, or one letter, is 1 Byte
    memory
  136. ________ is a bad thing--it slows down the performance of the computer. Usually, you run a defragmentation utility to optimize the performance
    Fragmentation
  137. CD and DVD storage technologies are classified as ___________ storage
    optical
  138. The __________ can restore deleted files because they will not truly be deleted until you overwrite the portion of the disk that file is on. The operating system will just record to the FAT (File Allocation Table) that there is no file in that area, but the data is actually intact until overwritten.
    undelete utility
  139. When file is saved to a disk, the operating system records the cluster number that contains the beginning of the file, essentially the location of the file on the hard drive, in a table called a __________(FAT).
    file allocation table
  140. A ___________ contains minimal operating system files and is often used for troubleshooting or installing a new operating system.
    boot disk aka bootable floppy
  141. In Windows, the ________ contains the settings that the computer needs to correctly use its software and hardware devices.
    registry
  142. _________ use the binary number system(base 2) at the most basic level. Every piece of information boils down to 1's and 0's. For example, a character is one byte of information; a byte consists of 8 bits, or eight 1's and 0's.
    Digital computers
  143. ________ is the data representation code used on most mainframes and microcomputers.
    ASCII
  144. Whatever is stored in RAM disappears when the computer is turned off, so if it's important, it needs to be transferred to ________ (i.e. the hard drive).
    storage media
  145. Most programming languages are called "___________." These are the languages with English-like instructions. An operating system does not know what to do with these high-level instructions. A compiler must translate those instructions into object code, also known as low-level instructions, before the operating system can run the program. This conversion is done with a compiler
    high-level languages
  146. An __________ is a set of steps for carrying out a task or solving a problem. The exact format of the algorithm depends on the programming language that will be used to write the program.
    algorithm
  147. In a program, values are stored in structures called _____________
    variables
  148. Another way of expressing an algorithm, which looks more like a programming language than structured English, is known as ______________
    pseudocode
  149. The computer normally reads a program from ____________. A program control statement modifies the order in which the computer executes the statements
    top to bottom
  150. The 'if' statement in programming falls into the category of control statements known as selection control structures. It has the computer choose from various actions based on whether a condition is true or false. On the other hand, statements such as FOR, WHILE, and DO WHILE are _____________
    repetition control structures.
  151. ___________ is easier for humans to understand than conventional programming languages and is not intended to be read by machines. It is a high-level description of a computer programming algorithm
    Pseudocode
  152. ________can be considered pseudocode presented in a graphical format
    • Flowcharts
    • Flowcharts are drawings which show the series of steps required to solve a problem
  153. The ___________-- takes place each time the computer is turned on, and runs various checks on hardware and diagnoses problems in the computer, such as if the graphics card is working. The POST occurs right when the computer is turned on, before the operating system gets a chance to start up
    POST (Power On Self Test)
  154. The computer's RAM is often not enough to handle all of the computer's temporary memory needs. ___________ uses the hard drive to act as a second source of memory, where programs can store temporary information they need while running
    Virtual memory
  155. ROM contains a small set of instructions called the ROM BIOS which tells the CPU how to access the disk drives and peripheral devices, so that the OS can start.
  156. The ____ memory holds data such as your computer system configuration but requires a small amount of electricity to retain it's data. This power is provided by a small battery on the motherboard.
    cmos
  157. In a personal computer, the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a single integrated circuit called a ____________.
    microprocessor
  158. A __________ (DSS) allows the user to explore "what-if" scenarios. It does NOT override human decision making--the ultimate decision is still make by the human
    Decision Support System
  159. A __________ program created for the internet is called an applet
    Java
  160. An ________-- is a program created for the internet which can't run on its own, while an application is a stand-alone program generally run from the command prompt.
    applet
  161. ___________ is a special high-speed memory that gives the CPU access to data very quickly
    Cache
  162. A ___________is a computer which is based on a central processing unit with a complex instruction set.
    CISC
  163. ---------- which involves a reduced instruction set
    RISC,
  164. In 1975, an IBM research scientist, by the name of
    ____________, discovered that most of the work done by a microprocessor requires only a small portion of the available instruction set. This led to the realization that about 20% of the instructions actually did about 80% of the work, which eventually led to the development of RISC machines
    John Cocke
  165. I/O stands for _________ and refers to collecting data for the microprocessor to process and transporting results to an output device, for example a monitor, or putting it in a storage device such as a hard drive.
    input/output
  166. __________ is where some Information System functions are hired out to a third party contractor
    Outsourcing
  167. A ___________is installed in the computer to allow it to connect to a monitor. It formats the output and sends it to the monitor so that you can see what you are seeing right now
    graphics card
  168. ___________is used to transmit data over phone lines. You can either use an external modem, which is in its own box, or a modem card, which fits inside of your computer. Either way, a modem is the minimum hardware you need for Internet connectivity
    modem card
  169. An ____________ is any connector that passes data in and out of a peripheral device or computer
    expansion port
  170. ____________- are sometimes called "connectors" or "jacks."
    Expansion ports
  171. With_____________ , stand-alone computers are linked by communications networks and the processing is shared between PCs, mainframes and other computers
    distributed processing
  172. Two popular forms of ________ are the client/server and peer to peer models of computing
    distributed processing
  173. ____________ computing can connect computers on the Internet or in private networks so that they can distribute jobs. The client/server model is generally what is used in companies on local area networks (LANs
    Peer to peer
  174. In a __________, workstations share responsibility for processing, storage, printing, and communications tasks without a server.
    peer to peer network
  175. With _________, the operating system (OS) keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously. The OS selects a job from the job queue and starts executing it, when that job needs to wait for input or output, the CPU is switched to another job.
    multiprogramming
  176. Computers which contain more than one processor are called systems _________or parallel systems
    multiprocessor
  177. A set of standard processing tasks that measure the performance of computer software or hardware is called a
    ___________.
    benchmark test
  178. The first step in the software is __________to define the problem
    development cycle
  179. The first step is to define the problem. This has also been referred to as - ________________understanding what the customer wants the software to do
    Requirements Analysis -
  180. The size of a hard drive, today, is currently measured in ________, while it was once measured in megabytes or kilobytes.
    Gigabytes
  181. An ________ is also known as a knowledge-based system
    Expert system
  182. In addition to access time, another measure of hard drive speed is ____, which is the measure of how fast a drive spins.
    Rpm
  183. The ________ phase of the software development cycle involves making sure the program is consistently producing accurate and desired results.
    testing
  184. High-performance workstations and servers will often use a SCSI (
    ___________) over an EIDE drive. SCSI drives are normally used because they provide a slight advantage over EIDE
    small computer system interface
  185. Computer Engineering normally focuses on the ______ of computer hardware and peripheral devices.
    designs
  186. Computer ______ normally focuses on making the computer work more efficiently and effectively.
    Science
  187. CIO stands for _________ , and he is the person with the most responsibility and the highest rank in the Information Services department.
    Chief Information Officer
  188. The highest Information Technology position in a company is the head of the _________ department, the CIO.
    is (information services)
  189. ________________are experts at defining problems and in preparing documentation on how the computer will assist in solving these problems.
    Systems analysts
  190. The DBA is the IT specialist who oversees the development, planning, implementation, operation and security of _____________.
    databases
  191. The _____________-manages all database activities and must have management as well as technical skills
    DBA (Database Administrator)
  192. Information Systems focuses mainly on the __________ of computers in an organizational or business environment
    application
  193. A GUI (______________) allows you to use the mouse to interact with icons and menu choices, in addition to using your keyboard to enter commands.
    Graphical User Interface
  194. Examples of resolutions are 800x600 and 1024x768. These numbers indicate the dimensions of the screen in pixels
  195. The __________ phase of the Software Development Life Cycle is when you would be most likely to first create flowcharts
    design
  196. A(n) displays__________ images more quickly than a normal graphics card.
    accelerated graphics card
  197. _________ memory stores images for the graphics card before they are displayed
    Video
  198. A ____________ in a laptop uses PCMCIA cards and is often used to add a modem or network card.
    PCMCIA slot
  199. When a computer allows you to switch out devices while it is on, it is called ________
    hot swap
  200. A ___________ doesn't usually do the actual coding; he is the one who does the initial interviewing of end-users to determine what the program needs to do. Then he designs the program. After that, it is up to the programmers to actually create the program based on those specifications.
    systems analyst
  201. The quality of sharpness depends on the ________that the printer can print
    DPI
  202. DPI stands for ______________.
    dots per inch
  203. An __________ test is a test which is done by the software publisher's test team
    Alpha
  204. A ___________ is a test which is done by a team of off-site testers
    Beta test
  205. LAN stands for __________. The other type of network is a WAN (__________).
    Local Area Network/Wide Area Network
  206. Several different types of cable can be used within the same LAN. Also, several different operating systems, a variety of hardware, can all be made to work together in a LAN (Local Area Network).
  207. Networks which span a large area, like the entire world, are called __________ (wide area networks). LAN's (local area networks) are networks which span a campus or building. For instance, a huge company with offices all over the U.S. may have a LAN at each office, and a WAN that connects all of the offices.
    WAN's
  208. A computer which is not connected to any kind of network is called a _________
    stand-alone computer
  209. When you connect your computer to a LAN (local area network), it becomes a _______.as opposed to a stand-alone).
    workstation
  210. The resources of the network which you have access to, such as a printer or other computer's hard drives, are called __________ .
    network resources
  211. Users access the server across the network from their workstations. Examples of services provided by servers include printing and file sharing, firewalls, and email services.
  212. Each ______ is a device on the network.
    node
  213. A __________ is also known as a network supervisor and creates user accounts as well as manages the network.
    network administrator
  214. _________ can be used for sending any files, big or small, but is especially useful for transferring large files across the internet
    FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  215. Usually the drive letters on a computer (i.e. Drive C, Drive D) are assigned to a drive (i.e. hard drive, cd-rom drive) on your local computer. With __________ , you assign a drive letter to a drive which is out on the network (i.e. on a server or someone else's workstation), allowing you to access that drive just as if it was inside your own machine
    Drive Mapping
  216. Individual computers (PCs, workstations) are called __________and the centralized computer is called ________.
    clients/a server
  217. File _________is a precaution which allows only one user to edit a data file
    Locking
  218. A ________is a small circuit board which allows the network to be possible by sending and receiving data.
    NIC
  219. A NIC, often referred to as a________, must be present in a computer for it to be part of a network.
    network card
  220. Network types include _______ and ethernet
    Token Ring
  221. _____________looks similar to a cable-TV cable and has a BNC connector on each end
    Coaxial cable
  222. Sometimes you will not use cables in a network, but will instead use radio or infrared signals. These networks are called __________
    wireless networks.
  223. A network __________ connects workstations and broadcasts every packet to all of its ports.
    hub
  224. A ____ _____file server acts as both a file server and workstation
    non-dedicated
  225. A print server receives _______ requests from other computers and prints them on its printer
    print
  226. On a spreadsheet, the name assigned to a column OR a row is known as _________
    a label
  227. A print ________ is where the print jobs are held before they are printed
    queue
  228. An _________ server is a computer which runs one application and returns the processed results of requests to the appropriate workstation.
    application
  229. A _________computer has many terminals which lets many people use the same computer.
    host
  230. This is known as __________- . As the jobs come in, they are processed. This is in contrast to batch processing, which processes a group of them at one time, rather than one at a time, as they come in.This is a general term which can apply to a variety of situations. For example, when a company processes credit cards, it can do them in real-time, or in batches. In real-time processing, it charges each card as the sale is made, and with batch processing, it charges a bunch of them at once at certain times of the day.
    real-time processing
  231. A __________ updates the Windows Registry and Start menu
    workstation installation
  232. A ________-allows multiple users to use the software. It is often much cheaper than buying many single-user licenses.
    network license
  233. ___________, which is also known as "document routing software," automatically takes a document from one person to the next after getting the necessary approval.
    Workflow software
  234. +_________ processing refers to the execution of transactions after they have been stored and collected over a set period of time.
    Batch
  235. A computer on the internet that provides a service is known as an _________
    Internet host.
  236. Internet communications software lets your computer transmit and receive data using ___________.
    TCP/IP
  237. A ___________ connects several offices scattered across the country.
    WAN
  238. The ________________, or set of communications rules, which is most used on the Internet is TCP/IP.
    protocol
  239. is the standard protocol for the transmission of email over the Internet
    SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  240. _________provides network services such as secure remote login using a secure channel between two networked devices. It is used to run programs on remote systems and move files from one system to another while maintaining an encrypted connection.
    Secure Shell(SSH)
  241. _________ are often simply referred to as ISP's. Some common examples of ISP's are Roadrunner and Earthlink.
    Internet Service Providers
  242. __________- is a sole communications medium that can transmit multiple channels at the same time. Other high-speed transmission technologies include Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
    Broadband
  243. An ____________ is a person in a company who designs and creates programs to meet end-users needs.
    Applications Developer
  244. The unique number which refers to every computer which is connected to the Internet is called an _________ .
    IP address
  245. The port number on a computer for accessing FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is port ___
    21.
  246. The Internet backbone has many ______, which direct traffic by use of the IP address
    Routers
  247. Sometimes referred to as a ________, most people refer to easy-to-remember names like cocacola.com as domain names
    FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name
  248. The ______ domain of the domain name indicates whether it is a college, government agency, commercial business, non-profit organization, etc.
    Top-level
  249. URL stands ________ , and is the address for a web page.
    for uniform resource locator
  250. The acronym ______is short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
    HTTP
  251. __________ is the process of taking a file from a remote computer and putting it on your computer's hard drive
    Downloading
  252. A discussion group takes place _______, which means that the participants in the conversation are not all online at the same time. It is similar to a bulletin board where everybody posts their comments and questions
    asynchronously
  253. In a ________--, you can communicate synchronously, meaning you are talking to people who are currently online at the same time.
    chat room
  254. __________ speed is the maximum speed that a modem can communicate with the modems owned by your ISP.
    Connection
  255. The speed that your computer can send or receive data is called your ________-
    transfer rate.
  256. A mistake which is made by the computer user is called an _________.
    operator error
  257. A ________of data is called a backup
    copy
  258. A __________ backup is a backup of all data that has changed since the last full backup.
    differential
  259. In a __________-- LAN network, the computers are connected to form a loop, and use a token to pass a message around the network.
    Token Ring
  260. A battery which provides power during power failures or power outages and provides a steady flow of power in case yo_________
    UPS.
  261. A computer component's reliability is measured by a statistic which is called a _______________
    MTBF mean time between failures.
  262. The _________ of a virus is what it wants to accomplish, or its true mission on your computer.
    payload
  263. A _________ virus is one that infects the first sector, i.e. the boot sector, of a floppy disk or hard drive. Boot sector viruses can also infect the Master Boot Record (MBR).
    boot sector
  264. A _________ virus attaches itself to a worksheet or document and spreads when the user opens the infected file.
    Macro
  265. __________ are a type of computer program that appear to perform a certain function, but actually perform other, often malicious, actions. They are primarily used for unauthorized remote access, mass-mailing spam, data destruction, file transfer, toll-line dialing, and denial-of-service attacks.
    Trojan Horses
  266. __________are a kind of computer virus that use networks and software vulnerabilities to make copies of themselves and spread throughout the network. For example, the Melissa and ILOVEYOU email viruses were both worms that exploited the macro feature within Microsoft Office documents.
    Worms
  267. A ________ is used to show how data flows to and from processes in a system
    Data Flow diagram
  268. A _________ is a number used to determine if any byte within a program has been changed.
    Checksum
  269. A virus __________ is a series of bytes which is unique for a certain virus. It acts as an identifier which Antivirus software can use.
    signature
  270. With an _________backup, you make a full backup at regular intervals, while using a separate tape to store the files that change each day after that. For instance, you would do a full backup on monday, use tape 2 for tuesday's changed files, and tape 3 for wednesday's changed files.
    incremental
  271. A special hole left by the programmer for emergency situations that can be used by a hacker to enter a system without having to hack each security precaution is called a _________ .
    trap door
  272. Companies will often have _________-a which will help keep hackers and potentially hazardous programs from getting on your company computer.
    firewall
  273. A _________stores information for a website so that it can "remember" you, when you come back.
    Cookie
  274. _______- refers to the time that a computer system is not available for use.
    Downtime
  275. One bit can give ____ different messages
    2
  276. The binary system is base ___.
    2
  277. _________ is a character representation code which uses 16 bits to represent 65536 characters
    Unicode
  278. _________ compresses multiple files into one smaller file
    File compression
  279. __________equals 1024 bytes.
    1 Kilobyte
  280. This is known as
    _________-. Channels with high bandwidth are known as broadband, while channels with low bandwidth are known as narrowband.
    bandwidth
  281. Transmissions which send one bit after another are known as __________ transmissions
    serial
  282. When transmitting data by _______transmission, all the bits of a byte are sent at the same time
    parallel
  283. The __________- of a network is the layout of the communication channels in a communications system
    topology
  284. The _________ connects each computer with its neighbors in a long chain
    bus topology
  285. The __________connects each computer to every other computer.
    mesh topology
  286. One way of checking if a transmitted byte was sent accurately is by using a __________, which has information on the number of 1 bits.
    parity bit
  287. A ___________transmits data at a fixed rate agreed by the sender and receiver.
    synchronous protocol
  288. An ______----protocol transmits data with start and stop bits
    asynchronous
  289. ___________communication allows you to transmit or receive, but not both
    Simplex
  290. __________communication lets you transmit and receive, but not at the same time
    Half-duplex
  291. _________ communication lets you send and receive at the same time
    Full-duplex
  292. There are various types of ________, for example: office information systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and transaction processing systems.
    information systems
  293. A ___________ is a website that offers a broad range of information and services--i.e. most search engines nowadays also offer news, email, weather, sports updates, etc..
    portal
  294. An ------------is a group of people who work together to accomplish a set goal
    organization
  295. A ____________ tells what an organization hopes to achieve
    mission statement
  296. _____________-is the use of computers or other machines to make certain processes more efficient.
    Automation
  297. _____________ is to input, record, or process information in a computer or system of computers.
    Computerization
  298. ---------------management keeps records of the organization's employees along with their salaries, skills, etc..
    Human resources
  299. There are two types of information: internal and external.
  300. An organization uses an __________system to automate its day-to-day office tasks
    automation
  301. An ______ is an internal network used by a company to provide its employees with access to information.
    intranet
  302. The 6 main types of information systems are the Executive Support System (ESS), Management Information System (MIS), Decision-Support System (DSS), Knowledge Work System (KWS), Office System and Transaction Processing System (TPS).
  303. _____________-(KWS)is groupware designed to enhance productivity by delivering task-specific information as needed, and by associating all automated tools, software agents, and multimedia document references required to complete a specific task.
    Knowledge Work System
  304. A _________ support system helps employees make decisions for semi structured problems.
    decision
  305. A ----------------, or expert system, analyzes data and comes up with a decision
    knowledge-based system
  306. Using a method called __________, an expert system can take unsure data, along with the percent of confidence in your unsure data and give you an answer along with its percentage of having given you a correct answer
    fuzzy logic
  307. ----------- networks simulate the brain and can learn, remember, and even process information
    Neural
  308. A __________system stores items purchased and calculates the total cost for each sale
    point-of-sale
  309. _________ is a critical technology for ecommerce applications as it is an efficient method of standardizing transactions such as invoicing and purchase orders between 2 organizations.
    EDI
  310. __________ is an automated method of sending information to a user's desktop without the user requesting it
    Push technology
  311. _____----- (online transaction processing) is typically used to support e-commerce and other time critical applications. Industries which use OLTP include airlines, banking, supermarkets, and mail order.
    oltp

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