47 immune

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47 immune
2011-07-17 01:48:28

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  1. the body's ability to protect itself from foreign agents or organisms
  2. where the body identifies its own cells as foreign and activates mechanisms to destroy them
    autoimmune disorder
  3. suppress the body's natural immune resonse to an antigen
    immunosuppresive disorder
  4. examples of natural and physical chemical mechaniss that enhance immunological functioning
    • -skin
    • -eyelashes
    • - nose cilia
    • -respiratory system
    • - gastric acidity
    • -intestinal mucosa
    • -pH of vaginal mucosa
  5. primary lymphoid organs
    • bone marrow
    • Thymus gland
  6. area where stem cells, the parent cells for all blood cells are produced
    bone marrow
  7. peripheral lymphoid organs
    • (LT Slap)
    • Liver
    • tonsils
    • spleen
    • lymph nodes
    • appendix
    • peyer's patches in the small intestine
  8. located through the body. responsible for filtering lymphatic fluid and removing and destroying matter
    lymph nodes
  9. what does enlargement of the lymph nodes indicate
    infectious or malignant process is occuring
  10. organ that serves as a reservoir for macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells
  11. ______ of the liver house monocytes that ingest and destroy foreign organisms in hepatic circulation
    kuppfer cells
  12. Leukocytes aka:
  13. where are WBC mostly formed
    in the bone marrow and partially in the lymph tissue
  14. 5 types of WBC
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
    • neutrophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • (BEN LM)
  15. WBC count for adults
    4,000 - 11, 000
  16. granular leukocytes:
    • BEN
    • -basophil
    • -eosinophil
    • -neutrophil
  17. wbc type that come into play during allergic reactions
    or paracitic invasion
    • Eosinophil
    • (E= allerGEE)
  18. wbc that are agranular luekocytes
    • -lymphocyte
    • -monocyte
  19. wbc that ingests bacteria
  20. wbc that secrete histamine during allergic reaction
  21. wbc that travels to the site of invading organisms and transform into Macrophages
  22. ____ make up the greatest number of WBC
  23. antibodies are also called
  24. -produce memory cells
    -responsible for humoral immunity
    -rstimulate plasma cells to secrete antibodies
  25. proteins that react with antigens to neutralize or destroy
  26. any substance identified by the body as nonself
  27. -responsible for cellular immunity
    -include helper cells, suppressor cells, and killer cells
  28. _____ are important in understanding how HIV atacks the immune system
    T-suppressor cells
  29. two types of immunity
    • -natural (innate) immunity
    • -acquired (adaptive)immunity
  30. _____- develops after birth and may be active or passive
    acquired immunity
  31. the result of exposure to disease or its vaccine
    active acqured immunity
  32. utilizes antibodies produced by another human being or animal.
    passive acquired immunity
  33. transmission of antibodies through fetal circulation is an example of ____ immunity
    passive acquired
  34. -innate immunity
    -present at birth
    -includes physical and chemical barriers to invading antigens
    natural immunity
  35. -long term immunity
    -antibodies develop as a result of exposure to disease or vaccine
    -antibodies neutralize future invasions of the same antigen
    active acquired immunity
  36. -temporary immunity
    -antibodies obtained from an animal or human being
    -examples or gamaglobulin or antiserum
    passive acquired immunity
  37. factors influencing immunity
    • (tanss)
    • -treatment modalities
    • -age
    • -nutritional status
    • -sex
    • -stress
  38. allergic disorders are a result of ___________, excessive reaction to a stimulus
  39. a type of antigen commonly found in the environment
  40. also known as hay fever or pollinosis, a common allergy caused by airborne allergens such as pollen, mold, animal dander, dust and ragweed
    allergic rhinitis
  41. raised pruritic, red, nontender wheals in the skin usually in the trunk and lower extremeties
    urticaria (hives)
  42. edema of subq layers and mucous membranes, is painless and only slightly pruritic
  43. what is medical management for clients experiencing an allergic response
    drug therapy tp treat symptoms and identification of precipitating agents
  44. is a type I systemic reaction to allergens and is the most serious type of allergic reaction
  45. type of food that is the leading cause of anaphylaxis in the US
    peanut and tree nut
  46. maybe life threatening. symptoms involve the skin, GI tract, cardiovascular and resp. systems
    anaphylactic reactions
  47. if untreated catastrophic effects of anaphylaxis may lead to?
    • -resp. failure
    • -severe hypotension
    • -anaphylactic shock
    • -death
  48. _____ is administered subq during an anaphylactic reaction to dilate bronchioles, increase heart contractions, and constrict blood vessels
  49. why are corticosteroids given during an allergic reaction
    for antiinflammatory effect
  50. what is the activity level for clients with allergic reactions
    bedrest until vitals are stable and breathing is restored
  51. what is autologous blood transfusion
    blood transfusion using clients own blood
  52. what is medical managemnt for clients experiencing an allergic reaction with blood transfusion
    STOP the transfusion and infuse normal saline
  53. can an LPN give blood
  54. clients are NPO during an allergic reaction until respiration is stable....WHY?
    because of risk for aspiration
  55. when should vital signs be assessed when administering blood products?
    • 15 minutes before
    • 15 minutes x4 after
  56. what is the inital nursing response for a transfusion reaction?
    • -stop transfusion
    • -then notify physician
  57. what are some signs of transfusion reactions?
    fever, chills, respiratory problems, HA, low back pain, itching
  58. tissue or blood donations from another donor or nonrelated donor
  59. type of isolation used for clients with major organ transplant?
    reverse isolation
  60. signs of transplant rejection
    • fever
    • weight gain
    • swelling or tenderness at site
  61. a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by joint stiffness
    RA (rheumatoid arthritis)
  62. who can rheumatoid arthritis affect?
    anyone-even children
  63. clients with a genetic marker HLA-DR4 have an increased risk with developing
  64. when _____ becomes thick it can lead to calcification of the joint, joint pain, limited mobility, and deformity
    synovial tissue
  65. when does damage of the bones begin with RA
    within the first 2 years
  66. what is the pattern of joint involvement in RA
    it is symmetrical - happens on both sides
  67. decrease or abscense of symptoms
  68. increase in symptoms
  69. therapeutic regimen for RA
    • medication
    • exercise
    • stress management
    • hot & cold compress
  70. foods high in _____ are encouraged with RA pt's when RBC's are low
  71. nursing management for RA
    • encourage relaxation techniques
    • take warm showers to relieve joint stiffness and pain
  72. what are some gradual developments for RA
    • early morning stiffness
    • pain in finger and joints
    • fatigue
    • weight loss
    • anemia
    • weakness
  73. chronic, progressive, incurable autoimmune disease affecting multiple organs. characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation. most common in women in child bearing age
    SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)
  74. autoimmune disease characterized by extreme muscle weakness and fatigue caused by the body's inability to transmit nerve impulses to voluntary muscles
    Myasthenia Gravis
  75. characterized by an acute emergency by increased muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing, chewing or talking
    myasthenia crisis
  76. what can be done when MG clients are not responding to drug therapy
  77. what is a major nursing concern for myasthenia gravis
    risk for aspiration
  78. retrovirus
  79. progressively fatal disease that destroys the immune system and the body's ability to fight infection
  80. what is the incubation period following exposure to HIV
    2-4 weeks
  81. how long can individuals remain symptom free with hiv
    10 years or more
  82. what cells does HIV attack and kill
    CD4 Tcells
  83. how much CD4 cells does a healthy person have
    1000 or more
  84. when the CD4 Tcell is less than ____ and the individual has ______ or more of the 26 clinical conditions that affect persons with advanced HIV, the individual is considered to have AIDS
    • 200
    • 1
  85. what is the leading cause of death among african americans wih HIV
  86. Most aids defining conditions are ______ infections, (infections in persons with a defective immune system that rarely cause harm in healthy individuals)
  87. what is the most basic screening test to detect antibodies to HIV
    ELISA test (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)
  88. What is to be done with a positive ELISA test?
    a retest to rule out technician error and false positives
  89. what is the confirmatory test when a positive ELISA test is confirmed
    Western Blot test
  90. what must the nurse obtain before testing blood with ELISA or western blot test
    signed informed consent
  91. what are modes of transmission for HIV
    • blood
    • semen
    • vaginal secretions
    • breast milk
  92. what is the goal of care for HIV
    keep the disease from progressing