39 urinary system

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39 urinary system
2011-07-16 22:27:09

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  1. urinary system consists of
    two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, and urethra
  2. function of the urinary system
    • –Manufacture urine
    • –Remove waste products
  3. Cessation of urine production
  4. Difficult urination
  5. blood in the urine
  6. Excessive urination at night
  7. decreased urinary production
  8. Need to urinate immediately
  9. excessive urinary production
  10. increase changes in aging
    • •Blood urea nitrogen increases
    • •Renal function increases when lying down
    • •Incidence of stress incontinence
    • increases in females
    • •Prostate may enlarge in males
  11. decreased changes in aging
    • •Bladder and perineal muscles weaken
    • •Nephrons decrease
    • •Glomerular filtration rate decreases
    • •Sodium-conserving ability diminishes
    • •Bladder capacity decreases
  12. common urinary diagnostic tests
    • •Radiographic tests
    • •Urine tests
    • •Blood tests
    • •Urodynamic tests
    • •Biopsy
    • •Endoscopic exam
    • (RUB U BE)
  13. urinary retension
    •Person unable to void when an urge
  14. what may urinary retension lead to
    • infection
    • distended bladder
    • incontinence
  15. what may urinary retension be caused by
    stress, obstruction,stones, tumor, infection, medications, or trauma
  16. symptoms of urinary retension
    • Frequency
    • voiding small amounts
    • distended bladder
  17. Tx for urinary retension
    • Urinary analgesics
    • antispasmodics
    • catheterization
    • urgery
  18. Involuntary loss of urine from bladder
    urinary incontinence
  19. types of urinary incontinence
    • –Stress
    • •Leakage of urine on straining

    • –Urge
    • •Sudden need to urinate

    • –Overflow
    • •Full bladder leads to leakage

    • –Total
    • •No control of voiding

    • –Nocturnal enuresis
    • •Nighttime incontinence
  20. goal of treatment for urinary incontinence
    Keep perineum clean, dry, and intact
  21. potential treatment for urinary incontinence
    • –Medications
    • –Pelvic floor exercises
    • –Bladder retraining
    • –Catheter insertion
    • –Surgery
  22. •Inflammation of urinary bladder
    •Caused by escherichia coli, candida albicans, coitus, prostatitis, and diabetes
  23. treatment and testing for cystitis
    • –Culture/sensitivity testing,
    • antimicrobial medication, and urinary tract analgesic
  24. cystitis diet treatment
    • •Increase fluid intake, acidic foods, and monitor
    • intake and output
  25. •Bacterial infection of renal pelvis,
    tubules, and interstitial tissue of one or both kidneys
    -also known as nephropyelitis
  26. treatment for pyelonephritis
    • –Urine culture/sensitivity testing,
    • antimicrobials, antipyretics, analgesics, increase fluids, intake and output,
    • and daily weight
  27. •Glomerulus within nephron unit becomes
    •May be bacterial or viral
    acute glomerulonephritis
  28. treatment for acute glomerulonephritis is to:
    • prevent renal complications,
    • cardiac complications, and complications to cerebral functioning
  29. treatment for acute glomerulonephritis
    • –Drug therapy, fluid restriction,
    • monitor labs, I&O, bed rest, and VS
  30. •Slowly progressive, destructive process
    affecting glomeruli

    •Causes loss of kidney function
    chronic glomulonephritis
  31. treatmenr for chronic glomerulonephritis is to:
    • •prevent further renal damage and cardiac
    • or cerebral complications
  32. treatment for chronic glomerulonephritis
    • –Medications, protein and fluid
    • restriction, bed rest, intake and output, VS, and monitor labs, daily weight,
    • and lung sounds
  33. Calculus, or stone, formed in urinary
    urinary calculi
  34. what is the treatment for very small calculi
    • Very small calculi may be flushed out by
    • peristalsis and fluids
  35. when calculi is excreted what should be done
    • strain urine
    • collect stones
    • send to lab for composition
  36. what is the treament for urinary calculi
    Lithotripsy, surgery, analgesics, medications, and dietary changes
  37. •May be cancerous or benign papillomas
    •Surgery may remove tumor, part of
    bladder, or entire bladder

    –Makes urinary diversion necessary

    •Other treatment:
    –Chemotherapy, analgesics, and
    sometimes low-residue diet
    urinary bladder tumors
  38. •Cancer in kidneys

    •Radical nephrectomy may be performed if
    other kidney healthy and disease localized
    renal tumors
  39. •Multiple grape-like clusters of
    fluid-filled cysts develop in and greatly enlarge both kidneys

    •Treat to preserve kidney function,
    prevent infections, and relieve pain
    polycystic tumor
  40. Tx for polycystic tumors
    •Control hypertension

    • •Eventually, may need dialysis or renal
    • transplantation
  41. •Any acute or chronic loss of kidney
    function when some kidney function remains
    renal failure
  42. Total, or nearly total, permanent kidney failure
  43. acute real failure with

    –Disrupted urine flow
  44. ARF w/

    –Disrupted blood flow to kidney
  45. ARF w/

    –Renal tissue damage

    -can be reversed if detected early
  46. Tx for ARF
    • –Medication, dietary changes, fluid
    • restrictions, and dialysis (peritoneal or hemodialysis)
  47. •Slow, progressive condition

    •Kidney’s ability to function ultimately

    •Not reversible

    •Multisystem disease process
  48. •Mechanical means of removing waste from
  49. –Machine with artificial membrane used to filter blood
  50. –Uses peritoneal lining of abdominal cavity as membrane through which diffusion and osmosis occur
    peritonial dialysis
  51. •Client must be tissue- and blood-typed to
    determine compatible donor

    •immunosuppressive drug therapy is used to decrease chance of organ rejection

    •Greatest complication:
    kidney transplantation
  52. what are some signs of kidney disease
    • burning or difficult urination
    • nocturia
    • passage of blood in urine
    • puffiness or sweeling around eyes hands and feet
    • pain in small of the back below the ribs
    • high BP
  53. what does the kidneys manufacture
  54. what is the usual capacity of bladder
    500 ml
  55. where are the kidneys located
    in the retroperitonial space (behind the peritonium behond the peritonial cavity)
  56. what do the kidneys assist with:
    • acid-base balance
    • secrete renin
    • produce erythropoetin, responsible for erythropoesis
  57. production of red blood cells produced by bone marrow
  58. microscopic units responsible for urine formation
  59. incomplete emptying of the bladder in men can be a result of
    an enlarged prostate gland
  60. two types of UTI's
    • Cystitis (affects bladder)
    • pyelonephritis (affects kidneys)
  61. bacteria count greater than ____ confirms urinary bacterial infection