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What is a base?
a base is an electron-pair donor, and a proton acceptor
What is an acid?
An acid is an electron-pair acceptor, and a proton donor.
What is ionization energy?
Energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom
What is electron affinity?
Energy associated with the addition of an electron to an isolated atom
Why is Ammoium ion a base?
Because it abstracts a proton from water leaving a hydroxide ion in solution. The lone electron pair in the Nitrogen gets donated to the bond as the proton is accepted.
NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ + OH-
Common Strong acids
- HI (Hydroiodic acid)
- HBr (Hydrobromic acid)
- HCl (Hydrocloric acid)
- HClO4 (Perchloric acid)
- H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid)
- HNO3 (Nitric Acid)
Common Strong bases
- Group I Hydroxides ([Na/K]OH)
- Group I Oxides ([Li/Na/K]2O)
- sm Gp II Hydroxides ( [Ba/Sr/Ca](OH)2 )
- Group II Oxides ([Mg/Ca/Ba]O) .
- Metal amides ([Na/K]OH)
- NH3 (ammonia)
What are amines?
What is their acid base properties?
What substituents enhance/ dimish their properties?
- Amines are substituted derivatives of ammonia.
- (RNH2, R2NH, R3N)
They are weak bases
- Alkil substitution increases basicity
- Aryl substitution decreases basicity
What is the oxidation state of an element in its standard state?
The oxydation state of ANY element in its standard state is 0.
What is the oxidaton state of metals?
- When bonded in a molecule,
- all Gp I elements oxydation state = +1
- all Gp II elements oxydation state = +2
What is the oxydation state of hallogens?
ALL hallogens have oxydation state = -1
What is the oxydation state of oxygen, and elements in its family?
ALL elements in oxygen family, including oxygen itself have oxydation state = -2
- BUT... in peroxides, oxygen's oxydation state = -1
- [Na2O2, H2O2]
What are the rules for assigning oxydation states to Hydrogen?
when bonded to something more electronegative than Carbon -> OS(C) = -1
When bonded to something less electronegative than Carbon -> OS(C) = +1
When bonded to Carbon, OS(C) = 0
What is the relationship between pH and [H3O+]?
What should I remember?
- pH = - log [H3O+]
- Remember the freaking negative, or you'll get the negative of the correct answer. How to calculate logs? download my flashcards on MCAT math tricks
Relationship between Ka and pKa?
pKa = - log Ka
Remember the negative, or you'll get incorrect ans.
what is the effect of change of species in solution for the Ksp of a certain reaction?
nothing. Ksp is specific each reaction, and it is only a function of temperature and concentration of each ion of the reaction.
If you increase or decrease acidity of reaction, and one of the ions gets consumed in a neutralization reaction, reaction will shift to the right and reestablish solubility equilibrium as long as temperature doesn't change.
more salt can be dissolved
Solubility product constant is a function of what?
will it change if other species are added to the reaction?
it's specific for each reaction and varies only with the concentrations of the species in the reaction.
No. there is a Ksp for NaCl (Ksp=[Na+][Cl-]; and even if KOH is added to the solution, since the concentrations of Na and Cl don't change, Ksp for that reaction wont change.