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what do long-term interventions do?
- determine readiness for change
- emphasize WHAT to eat, rather than WHAT NOT to eat
- suggest 1-2 changes at a time
when is a mechanically altered diet approptoate?
- for difficulties of chewing or swallowing
- dental problems
- neurological problems
- surgery of the head or neck
- anatomical physiological abnormalities
when is a blenderized liquid diet appropriate?
- oral or facial surgeries
- soft or tender food from all food groups
when is a clear liquid diet appropriate?
- before and after GI procedures/surgeries
- these diets require minimal digestion and re easily absorbed
- fat-malabsorption problems
- acute intestinal disorders
- before & after surgery
- long-term restriction is discouraged
- prevent or correct fluid retention
- treatment of hypertension and CHF
high kcalorie, high-protein diet
- high nutrient requirements
- eating poorly
how can medications affect diet-drug interactions?
- reduce appetite
- increase appetite and weight gain
- alter absorption, metabolism, & excretion of nutrients
- some interactions can become toxic
how can nutrients affect diet-drug interactions?
alter absorption, metabolism, and excretion of medications
what are some effects that drugs can have on food intake?
- induce nausea & vomiting
- alter taste sensations
- suppress appetite
- dry the mouth
- cause inflammation & lesions in the mouth
- sedate the patient
- some stimulate food intake (weight gain)
how does the stomach emptying rate affect drug absorption?
- meals delay absorption
- empty stomach enhances absorption
how does the stomach acidity affect drug absorption?
- some drugs need an acidic environment
- others may need enteric coating
how does grapefriut juice affect drug metabolism
increases blood concentrations of some drugs
how do vitamin k rich foods affect drug metabolism
can weaken the effect of blood thinners
- person's "life force" can produce healing
- stimulated by certain health-promoting factors
- suppressed by excesses and deficiencies
- illness comes from internal disruption
- improve psychological and/or spiritual well-being despite illness
- helps deal with stress, pain, or lowering BP
- guided imagery
- faith healing
biologically based therapies
use of natural products: dietary supplements, vitamin & mineral supplements, herbal & plant extracts, special foods
do products such as dietary & vitamin supplements need FDA approval?
what are some of the risks/disadvantages to using biologically based theories? (supplements, herbs & plant extracts, special foods)
- do not need FDA approval
- benefits are uncertain
- many unfounded claims
- some contaminants or toxicity
- determining effectiveness is complicated
- may interct with medications
dietary supplements: what are DHEA hormone supplements used for?
- enhanced immunity
- increased muscle mass
- improved aging
- defense against aging
what are the two different types of energy therapies?
- biofield therapies
what are the different bifield therapies?
- therapeutic touch
what does bioelectromagnetic therapy do?
- improves circulation
- reduces inflammation
- speed injury recovery
what are the potential dangers with CAM?
- may not be safe (some herbs)
- may delay use of scientific treatments
- nuses need to inquire about the use of CAM