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- unique physical features related to break-up of "Gonwanaland"
- Absence of extensive mountain chains, but extensive plateau surface
- Highland Africa is eastern and southern Africa
- Lowland is central and western Africa
- Rift valleys, some filled by water to create lakes
- Lake Victoria- very small lake (puddle)
- Coastal escarpment where continents broke away from Africa
Climate and Vegetation
- Increasingly drier north and south of the equator
- Tropical savanna
- Precipitation volume determined by location of the ITCZ (inter tropical conversion zone)
- The rainy season is the high sun season, the ITCZ must be nearby or over head
- Seasons determined by precipitation and not temperatures
Disease and Development
- “endemic” diseases are rarely fatal, but physically draining.
- Africa is not innately disease prone, but is a result of poverty.
- SSA has the highest global infection rate.
- Southern Africa is the most infected.
- Demographic impact on population growth rate and life expectancy.
- Government-sponsored behavior program have sometimes be successful Uganda, for example.
Causes of rapid spatial spread of HIV/AIDS
- Heterosexual transmission increases pool of the infected.
- Civil conflict increases flow of infected soldiers, prostitutes, and refugees.
- Rural-urban “circular” migration.
- Patriarchal social structure
Socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS
- Loss of rural labor
- Millions of orphans
- Rise of interior empires in interior West Africa based on trans-Saharan trade (700-1600 A.D.), introduction of Islam.
- Arrival of European traders in 1500 A.D., restricted to coast.
- Slave trade commences in 1600, ends in late 1870s- creates the “Black Atlantic Diaspora”
- 1884 Berlin Conference creates formal boundaries from areas of European coastal influence.
- Height of industrialization in Europe meant that SSA was a critical source of raw materials.
- “Civilizing” Africans was the “white man’s burden”
Legacy of Colonialism
- Boundaries do not spatially coincide with traditional ethnic regions
- Modern civil wars are a consequence of frustrated state building, examples --- Sudan in both the far south and the west (Darfur)
- Civil Strife is a consequence of frustrated state building, examples --- government devolution is Sumalia.
Differences of North and South of Sudan
- North is dry, South has a lot vegetation
- About half is Arab and Muslim.
- The north has been subjecting the south with reference to violent activity.
- Better water in the north.
- More children go to school in the north.
- North Sudan holds onto South Sudan because it has substantial amounts of oil.
Economic Legacy of Colonialism Part I
- Creation of a dual economy of mines and plantations (core) and traditional agriculture (periphery).
- Labor migration to these “islands of modernization”
- Underdevelopment of traditional food crop sector.
- Gender and Development
- Lowest GDI
- Colonial policies toward land ownership benefited men
- Colonial policies toward wage earning export crops benefited men
Economic Legacy of Colonialism Part II
- IMF and World Bank structural adjustment policies discriminate against women
- Reduced the role of gov. in ppl’s lives
- Severely impacted women and their children
- Smaller scale NGOs make a more positive impact by resisting power of larger scale organizations
- Women spend far too much time gathering wood and water
The regional distributions of Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, and Coptic Christian faiths
- Islam- northern regions, the Horn, and the coastal corridors of Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique.
- Catholicism- Rwanda, Burundi, DRC, and much of central southern africa.
- Protestantism-South Africa.
- Coptic Christian- Ethiopia.
Dense population concentration
The West African coastal belt stretching from Dakar, Senegal, to Libreville, Gabon; and a north-south belt stretching from the Ethiopian highlands down through Lake Victoria, ending in the Witwatersrand district of South Africa
Sparsely concentrated population
The Sahel region, the west-central-forest regions of DCR and Gabon, and the arid/semiarid region of southwest Africa.
Identify the various factors that explain the high fertility rates of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Most females marry at an early age, belief systems, customs, and traditions, high premium on lineage and spiritual survival. Children are regarded as economic assets.
Two primary reasons why the Green Revolution has been relatively unsuccessful in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Subsistence farmers are denied access to the financial credit and extension services required for them to purchase the more expensive new seeds and fertilizers.
- The limited development of high-yielding strains of the staple tuber crops that constitute the daily diet of African farmers.
Who are the Afrikaners?
The oldest European community in South Africa
What are the differences between petty and grand apartheid and what role did bantustans play in the larger scheme of grand apartheid?
Petty- discourage different races to use the same facilities whereas the Grand was to create a world where it wouldn’t matter
Why were these Bantustans not economically viable?
It provided homelands that without any significant mineral reserves and without any potential for cultivation failed economically.