Phil MT2&3

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kjel
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94213
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Phil MT2&3
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2011-08-04 00:07:44
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Phil MT2
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Phil MT2&3
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  1. rationalism
    the claim that reason or intellect is the primary source of our fundamental knowledge about reality
  2. skepticism
    the claim that we do not have knowledge
  3. empiricism
    the claim that sense experience is the sole source of our knowledge about the world
  4. a priori knowledge
    knowledge justified independently of, or prior to, experience
  5. a posteriori knowledge
    knowledge based on, or posterior to, experiance
  6. innate ideas
    ideas that are inborn; ideas or principles that the mind already contains prior to experience
  7. dualism (and interactionism)
    the mind and body are separate entities which causally interact with one another
  8. physicalism
    human beings can be completely explained in terms of their material components
  9. reductionism / identity theory
    the mind is numerically identical to the brain but we still need mental terms to understand the mind
  10. eliminativism
    the mind is numerically identical to the brain, and we should cease speaking in mental terms (instead use physiological terminology)
  11. idealism
    the mind is real, but the body only exists as a perception/projection of the mind
  12. principle of the non-identity of discernibles
    if two things do not have all their properties in common, then they are not the same thing
  13. Ockham's razor
    prefer the simpler explanation; do not multiply theoretical entities beyond necessity
  14. multiple realizability
    the property by which something can be realized in multiple ways and in different media
  15. functionalism
    • a philosophy that claims that the mind is characterized by particular patterns of input-processing-output
    • mental states are defined in terms of their causal role (how they function)
  16. Hume
    • empiricism leads to skepticism
    • when we look within we find only contents but no container
    • we do not see the laws of nature themselves
  17. Kant
    • middle ground b/t empiricism and rationalism
    • Phenomena: things-as-we-experience-them
    • Noumena: things-in-themselves
    • Knowledge is constructed of raw sense data and the innate categories of the human mind [cookie cutter]
    • raw/unformed => understanding => concepts
  18. Plato
    • Father of Rationalism
    • reality made of 2 things: matter and form
    • matter: a place holder
    • form: the perfect image/idea of something
  19. Locke
    • empiricist
    • the mind is tabula rasa at birth
    • 2 aspects of reality:
    • Primary qualities: math, size, mass, location, etc
    • Secondary qualities: sound, taste, smell
  20. Berkeley
    • empiricist
    • proposes idealism
    • "how can we say that there is a material world beyond our experience?"
  21. two main theories of truth
    • objectivism: one set of universal truths, independent of us
    • relativism: multiple sets of truths, dependent on us
  22. two types of relativism
    • cultural: truth determined by social group
    • subjectivism: truth determined by individual
  23. two versions of physicalism
    • reductionism/ identity theory: the mind is numerically identical to the brain, but we still need mental terms to understand the mind
    • eliminativism: mind numerically identical to brain, we should only use physiological terminology
  24. dualism
    the mind and body are separate entities which causally interact with one another

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