Mendelian Genetics

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Geoff
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94234
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Mendelian Genetics
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2011-07-16 23:39:43
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BIOL Genetics
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Study cards for Chapter 14 "Mendelian Genetics" BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. List three reasons why Mendel chose to work with pea plants.
    • easy to grow
    • short growing time
    • each character had two traits
  2. Describe the "blending" hypothesis.
    If parents were of contrasting appearance, the offspring would have an intermediate appearance.
  3. True or False: The "blending" hypothesis was proven correct in the 19th century.
    False - Mendel disproved the blending hypothesis in the 19th century.
  4. Describe what it means to be a "true-breeding" plant.
    The plant is homozygous for it's specific characters and all self-pollinated offspring will have the same characters.
  5. Gregor Mendel studied hereditary science during which decade of the 19th century?
    1860's
  6. The thought that red flowers crossed with white flowers would always yield pink flowers is an example of the:
    Blending Concept of Inheritance
  7. Mendel chose what type of plant to perform his hybridization experiments?
    pea plants
  8. Inheritable features among individual are known as:
    characters
  9. Variations of characters, such as flower color or eye color, are known as:
    traits
  10. Why would you utilize true-breeding plants in the P generation?
    to control which traits are being passed on
  11. Cross polinating two true-breeding parent plants creates the _______ generation.
    F1
  12. List the four primary tenets of Mendel's Model.
    • alternative versions of genes will cause variation in characters
    • individuals inherit two alleles for each character
    • if the alleles are different, one will override the other
    • during gamete formation, the two alleles will seperate and end up in different gametes
  13. Alternate versions of genes that allow for variation in characters are known as:
    alleles
  14. True or False: The alleles you inherit can be identical or different.
    True
  15. Where do the two alleles for a specific gene come from?
    one from each parent
  16. The allele that overrides the recessive allele causing it to be masked is the:
    dominant allele
  17. The allele whose expression is only visible when the dominant allele is not present is the:
    recessive allele
  18. Explain the Law of Segregation.
    During gamete formation, the two alleles for a specific gene seperate and end up in different gametes.
  19. What is a Punnet Square used for?
    to predict the alleles of an organisms offspring
  20. If an organism is homozygous for a trait, it's alleles are:
    identical
  21. True or False: An organism can be homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive.
    True
  22. If an organism has two alleles that are different, it is said to be:
    heterozygous for the trait
  23. The genotype expresses the ________ of the two alleles.
    genetic makeup
  24. The phenotype is the physical expression of the:
    genotype
  25. Is blonde hair a genotype or phenotype?
    phenotype
  26. Is homozygous recessive a genotype or phenotype?
    genotype
  27. In what circumstance would you do a "test cross?"
    when you do not know the genotype of an organism
  28. Assuming that red flowers are dominant to white flowers, if you cross an unknown red flowered plant with a true-breeding recessive plant (white flowers) and get all red plants, you know that the unknown parent plant was:
    homozygous dominant
  29. Assuming that yellow seeds are dominant to green seeds, if you cross an unknown yellow seeded plant to a true-breeding recessive (green seeded) plant, and you get half yellow seeds and half green seeds, you know that the unknown parent plant was:
    heterozygous
  30. Define a monohybrid.
    organism that is heterozygous for a specific trait
  31. An plant that is heterozygous (Tt) for a single trait is an example of a:
    monohybrid
  32. The two true-breeding plants that are crossed to begin a hybridization experiment are known as the ___ generation.
    P
  33. The result of crossing two heterozygous F1 plants is known as the ___ generation.
    F2
  34. In a monohybrid cross all the plants in the F1 generation will be:
    heterozygous
  35. In a monohybrid cross the ratio of dominant to recessive phenotypes in the F2 generation will be:
    3 to 1
  36. True or False: The crossing of a true-breeding dominant plant (TT) with a heterozygous plant is an example of a monohybrid cross.
    False - a monohybrid cross begins with a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent.
  37. An organism that is heterozygous for two traits is known as a:
    dihybrid
  38. What is the difference between a dihybrid and a monohybrid?
    a dihybrid is heterozygous for two traits while a monohybrid is heterozygous for only one
  39. A cross between individuals who are heterozygous for a single trait is a:
    monohybrid cross
  40. A cross between individuals who are heterozygous for two traits is a:
    dihybrid cross
  41. True or False: In a dihybrid cross, the F1 generation will be heterozygous for both traits.
    True
  42. True or False: In a dihybrid cross the P generation will be heterozygous for both traits.
    False - the P generation will be homozygous, either dominant or recessive, for both traits
  43. For the P generation RRHH and rrhh, list the four gametes of the F1 generation.
    • RH
    • Rh
    • rH
    • rh
  44. In a dihybrid cross examining traits represented by G and Q, what will be the genotype of the F1 generation.
    GgQq
  45. In a dihybrid cross considering traits R and T, what will be the P generation gametes?
    RT and rt
  46. Describe the Law of Independent Assortment.
    each pair of alleles will separate independently
  47. The fact that seed color alleles are independent of pod color alleles is an example of:
    the Law of Independent Assortment
  48. If you do not express a trait but are able to pass it on to your offspring you are known as a:
    carrier
  49. The practice of crossing plants with different genotypes resulting in daughter plants with new genotypic combinations is known as:
    hybridization
  50. The probability scale ranges from ___ to ___.
    0 to 1
  51. A probility value of 1 is assigned to:
    certain events
  52. With two heterozygous parents, the probability of offspring that is homozygous dominant is:
    1/4 or 25%
  53. With two heterozygous parents, the probability of offspring that are heterozygous is:
    1/2 or 50%
  54. With two heterozygous parents, the probability of offspring that are homozygous recessive is:
    1/4 or 25%
  55. In a dihybrid cross, the probability of an F2 child expressing the dominant gene for both traits is:
    9/16 or 56.3%
  56. In a dihybrid cross, the probability of an F2 child expressing the dominant gene for trait 1 and the recessive gene for trait 2 is:
    3/16 or 18.7%
  57. In a dihybrid cross, the probability of an F2 child expressing the recessive gene for trait 1 and the dominant gene for trait 2 is:
    3/16 or 18.7%
  58. In a dihybrid cross, the probability of an F2 child expressing the recessive gene for both traits is:
    1/16 or 6.2%
  59. When the dominant allele completely masks the recessive allele you have this type of dominance.
    complete dominance
  60. True or False: There is no phenotypic difference between organisms that are homozygous dominant and heterozygous for a specific trait.
    True
  61. When neither allele dominates the other completely you have this type of dominance.
    incomplete dominance
  62. With incomplete dominance, when an organism is heterozygous, neither allele masks the other and you get an:
    intermediate effect
  63. If two parents with alleles that exhibit incomplete dominance are crossed, what percentage of the F1 generation will display the intermediate effect.
    100% - they will all be heterozygous
  64. Consider two flowers, one red and one yellow, that are crossed. The F1 generation will have orange flowers due to incomplete dominance. What proportion of the F2 generation will have orange flowers?
    50%
  65. How does codominance of alleles affect phenotypic expression?
    both alleles are expressed in the phenotype
  66. True or False: If two alleles are codominant, you will always see both contribute to the phenotypic expression.
    True
  67. Consider two organisms, one with white coloring and one with black coloring. If the alleles exhibit incomplete dominance, what can we expect of the color of their offspring?
    it will be gray
  68. Consider two organisms, one with white coloring and one with black coloring. If the alleles exhibit codominance, what can we expect of the color of their offspring?
    it will be black and white striped
  69. True or False: Each phenotype is always determined by one genotype.
    False - each phenotype can be determined by multiple alleles.
  70. If a person has type A blood, what are the possible genotypes?
    IAIA and IAi
  71. If a person has type B blood, what are the possible allele combinations?
    IBIB and IBi
  72. If a person has the blood genotype IAIB, what type blood do they have?
    type AB
  73. If a person has the alleles "ii," what type blood do they have?
    type O
  74. Rh is determined by the presence, or absence, of:
    the D antigen
  75. A gene at a secondary location affecting the expression of a gene at the primary location is an example of:
    epistasis
  76. True or False: In mice color is deposited on the fur only if they have a dominant allele for color deposition, regardless of the alleles for fur color.
    True
  77. When two or more genes have an added effect upon each other you have:
    polygenic inheritance
  78. The example of polygenic inheritance discussed in class was:
    skin color
  79. True or False: Regarding skin color, as you decrease the number of dominant alleles, you decrease the amount of pigmentation.
    True
  80. What shape is used to denote males on a pedigree chart?
    squares
  81. Circles represent which gender on a pedigree chart?
    females
  82. On a pedigree chart, if a person is affected by the trait, his/her shape will be:
    filled in
  83. True or False: The environment can affect phenotypic expression.
    True
  84. What environmental condition can affect the color of hydrangeas?
    pH
  85. Hydrangeas that express blue petals must be growing in ______ soil.
    acidic
  86. What environmental process affects the color of jackrabbits?
    changing of the seasons
  87. True or False - In summer jackrabbits turn white.
    False - the decrease in temperature of winter turns them white

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