Anatomy: Chapter 19

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gweenbott
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94240
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Anatomy: Chapter 19
Updated:
2011-07-16 22:35:52
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endocrine system anatomy chapter
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Summer anatomy course, chapter 19 endocrine glands
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  1. EXOCRINE
    through ducts onto epithelial surface
  2. ENDOCRINE
    directly into interstitial fluid
  3. What do we call the study of the endocrine system?
    endocrinology
  4. What do we call the products of the endocrine gland?
    hormones
  5. What part of the brain is the master control center of the endocrine system?
    hypothalamus
  6. What two hormones does the hypothalamus produce?
    • antidiuretic hormones
    • - reabsorption of water, elevate BP
    • oxytocin
    • -labor contractions, milk ejection
  7. What endocrine gland is found in the sella turcica of the spehnoid bone and cosists of two lobes?
    pituitary gland
  8. Provide the technical name for the
    - posterior lobe
    - anterior lobe
    Neurohypophysis : Posterior lobe

    Adenohypophysis: Anterior lobe
  9. What two hormones are distributed from the posterior lobe?
    Antidiuretics and oxytocin
  10. What hormones are secreted by the anterior lobe?
    Name 7
    • 1. Thyroid stimulating hormones
    • 2. Adrenocorticotropic
    • 3. Follicle stimulating hormone
    • 4. Luteinizing hormone
    • 5. Prolactin
    • 6. Growth hormone
    • 7. Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  11. Thyroid stimulating hormone
    release of thyroid hormones
  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    release of steroids from adrenal cortex
  13. Follicle stimulating hormone
    Oocyte development and estrogen producing/ sperm production
  14. Luteinizing hormone
    Ovulation and progestin production/ androgen production
  15. Prolactin
    Milk production and mammary gland development
  16. Growth hormone
    Accerelate protein production
  17. Melanocyte stimulating hormone
    Stimulate melanocytes
  18. What bi-lobed endocrine gland is located anterior to the trachea just inferior to the larynx?
    Thyroid gland
  19. What hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland?
    • Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine
    • Calcitonin
  20. Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine
    increase cellular metabolism
  21. Calcitonin
    decrease blood calcium levels
  22. What endocrine glands are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland?
    Parathyroid glands
  23. What hormone increases blood calcium levels? (released by the parathyroid gland)
    Parathyroid glands
  24. What two layered endocrine glands are located on the superior border of each kidney?
    Adrenal glands
  25. What layer is yellow because of the presence of stored lipids? (on the adrenal gland)
    adrenal cortex
  26. What is the general term for the hormones secreted from the adrenal cortex?
    corticosteroid
  27. Name 3 types of corticosteroids
    • 1. mineralcorticoids
    • 2. glucocorticoids
    • 3. androgen
  28. Mineralcorticoids
    conservation of sodium and water
  29. glucocorticoids
    stimulate gluconeogenesis
  30. Androgen
    in women promote muscle mass/ libido
  31. What layer, on the inside of the adrenal gland, is composed of modified ganglionic neurons?
    Adrenal medulla
  32. What two hormones, secreted by the adrenal medullar, produce effects similar to the sympathetic stimulation?
    Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  33. What mixed gland lies deep to the stimach between the C of the duodenum and the spleen?
    PANCREAS
  34. What two hormones produced by the pancrea are most directly involved with the regulation of blood glucose levels?
    • Glucagon
    • Insulin
  35. Glucagon
    alpha cells, increase blood glucose levels
  36. Insulin
    beta cells, decrease blood glucose levels
  37. What form of diabetes, linked to the pancreas, is associated with glucose levels so high that our kidneys cannot reabsorb all of it?
    diabetes mellitus
  38. What form of diabetes is not linked to the pancrea at all but rather the lack of anti-diuretic hormones from the posterior pituitary?
    Diabetes insipidus
  39. What endocrine gland is located deep to the sternum and regresses with age after puberty?
    Thymus
  40. What category of hormones, produces by the thymus, assists in the maturation and fuction of the immune system?
    Thymosins
  41. What is the name of the male gonads?
    Testes
  42. What is the primary androgen, produced by the testes, that promotes skeetal muscle growth and male secondary sexual characteristics?
    Testosterone
  43. What is the name of the female gonads?
    Ovaries
  44. What is the general term for the hormones that support follicle maturation and growth of the uterine lining as well as producing female secondary sexual characteristics?
    estrogen
  45. What is the general term for the hormones produced by the corpus luteum that causes the uterus to prepare for implantation?
    progestins
  46. What small endocrine gland is located on the posterior aspect of the diencephalon of the brain?
    Pineal gland
  47. What hormone, produced by the pineal gland, regulates circardian rhythms and the onset of sexual maturity?
    melatonin
  48. What hormones, produced by the heart, help lower blood pressure by stimulating the loss of water and sodium at the kidney?
    Natriuretic peptides
  49. What hormone, produced by the kidneys, stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow?
    erythropoietin

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