endocrine system.txt

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endocrine system.txt
2011-07-16 22:05:43
endocrine n300

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  1. What are the endocrine clands
    • Hypothalamus (a neuroendocrine gland)
    • •Pituitary gland
    • •Adrenal glands
    • •Thyroid gland
    • •Islet cells of the pancreas
    • •Parathyroid glands
    • •Gonads
  2. What is simple feedback?
    based upon blood values
  3. What is negative feedback
    • a gland response for increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone
    • ie. insulin or PTH
  4. What is positive feedback?
    • increases target organ beyond normal
    • ie oxytocin
  5. What is complex feedback?
    • Usually involves several glands
    • ie T3 and T4 Relaease
  6. Steroids _____ in mornings and _____ in evenings. Growth Hormones _____ during sleep
    • rise
    • decrease
    • peak
  7. The hypothalamus is known for
    • being an important part of endocrine system
    • produces hormones
    • working closely with pituitary gland
    • releasing and inhibiting hormones
    • coordinates with ANS to produce fear and anger
  8. Anterior Pituitary
    • larger portion
    • regulated by hypothalamus
    • Releases the Growth Hormone, Prolactin ( breast development and lactation), and Tropic hormones (controls and secretes other hormones by other glands
  9. Posterior Pituitary
    • is an extension of the hypothalamus
    • ADH and Oxytocin are produced in hypothalmus but stored in posterior pituitary
  10. ADH
    • when stimulated the renal tubules reabsorb water
    • creating a concentrated urine
    • regulated by fluid volume and plasma concentration
  11. Oxytocin
    • Stimulates the production of milk into mammary ducts
    • Contract uterine smooth muscle
    • Released by stimulation of touch receptors in the nipples of lactating women
  12. What are 2 pituitary disorders?
    • Gigantism: excessive secretion before the closing of the epiphysis
    • Acromegly: excessive secretion after the closing of the epiphysis
  13. SIADH
    Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone, leading to fluid retention, dilutional hyponatremia, and concentrated urine
  14. DI
    • Diabetes Insipidus. This is a deficiency of ADH
    • increased urine output
    • dilute urine
  15. What is the function of the theyroid gland
    the release of triiodothyronine (t3) and thyroxine (t4)
  16. T3 and T4 control what?
    • metabolism
    • Both hormones increase metabolism, which causes an increase in oxygen use and heat production in all tissues.
  17. Calcitonin
    • produced by the thyroid
    • in response to high levels of calcum
    • inhibits reabsorption of bones , increases excretion of Ca
  18. PTH
    • increases bone resorption,
    • resulting in calcium release into blood, and promotes the reabsorption of calcium and excretion of phosphorus
    • activates Vitamin D
  19. Adrenal Medulla
    • releases catecholamines
    • has an effect on all body systems
  20. Adrenal Cortex
    • Releases more than 50 steroid hormones
    • * glucocorticoids (cortisol)
    • - effect on glucose metabolism
    • - antiinflammatory action
    • - stress response released by negative feedback (CRH and ACTH)
    • * mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
    • -released in response to fluid volume and altered potassium levels
  21. What is an Adrenal Cortex Disorder?
    • Cushing Syndrome: excess glucocorticoids
    • Addison's Disease: generally all 3 glucocorticoids are decreased
  22. A tumor of the adrenal medulla accompanied by hypertension is known as what
  23. The alpha cells in the pancreas release what and the beta cells in the pancreas release what
    • alpha- glucogan
    • beta- insulin
  24. What are some Thyroid disorders?
    • Goiter
    • Nodules
    • Hyper and Hypothyroidism
    • Thyroiditis
  25. exopthalomus, heat intolerance, anxiety, and Graves disease all indicate
  26. mineralcorticoids help control the body's
    sodium and potassium levels
  27. Cortisol effects
    • Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
    • •The body's response to stress
    • •Emotional stability
    • •Immune function
  28. thyrocalcitonin (TCT) helps regulate
    serum calcium levels
  29. When do steroids rise and decline?
    When do growth hormones peak?
    • steroids rise in the morning and decline at night
    • growth hormones peak during sleep
  30. what kind of foods should be fed to a pt with hyperthyroidism?
    high in calorie, protein, carbohydrates
  31. what position should a pt that has had a thyroidectomy be in?
    Semi Fowlers – avoid flexion of neck, neutral position of neck
  32. In a pt with hypothyroidsim, what should we be concerned about?
    Alert to hypoglycemia and hyponatremia
  33. If a patient is hyponatremic from hypothyroidism, what kind of solution would be good to use for IV therapy
    • hypertonic solution
    • also iv glucose
  34. Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by
    • characterized by bone decalcification and the development of renal stones containing calcium
    • can have hypercalcemia
  35. What are some conservative treatment options for a pt with hypercalcemia (hyperparathyroidism)
    • Fluids
    • Increase salt – increase Ca+ excretion
    • Limit Ca+
    • Medications: (depends if primary or secondary hyperthyroidism)
  36. The troussea and chvostek signs are indicitave of what and possible what?
    • hypocalcemia
    • hypoparathyroidism