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What circuit of the heart carries carbon dioxide rich blood from the heart to the gas exchanging surfaces of the lungs?
- Pulmonary circuit
- -right side
What circuit of the heart carries oxygen rich blood from the heart to the body's tissues?
- Systemic circuit
- -left side
What is the space that contains the heart'scavity as well as large blood vessels, respitory tubes, and the esophagus called?
Describe the position of the heart in the chest
2/3 to the left of the midline
The heart is contained within its own container/wrapper formed by an inner serous layer and an outer fibrous layer. What is the term for this wrapper?
middle, muscular layer
inner layer, continuous with lining of blood vessels
Cardiac muscle cells are connected by specialized junctions that both tie the cells together and allow ions to pass through. What do we call these specialized junctions?
What structure, consisting of bands of collagen and elastic fibers, stabilizes the muscles and valves of the heart and isolate the atrial and ventricular muscle to allow independent contraction?
The heart has a number of grooves on its surface that divide the chamber superficially and contain blood vessels.
- coronary sulcus
- anterior interventricular sulcus
- posterior interventricular sulcus
between atria and ventricles
anterior interventricular sulcus
anteriorly between ventricles
posterior interventricular sulcus
posteriorly between ventricles
What structures seprate the left and right portions of each chamber type?
- interventricular septum
- interatrial septum
separate the ventricle
separate the atria
What is the function of the heart valves?
To prevent the back flow of blood.
What chamber of the heart receive blood from the body or the lungs?
List 3 vessels that drain into the right atrium
- 1. superior vena cava
- 2. inferior vena cava
- 3. coronary sinus
List the vessels that drain into the left atrium
What valves separate the atria from the ventricles?
- - between the L atrium and L ventricle
- -between the R atrium and R ventricle
What structure attached to the atrioventricular valves and muscles in the ventricles look like white strings?
What muscles, found in the ventricle, are attached to these strings and help ensure proper valve function?
What chambers pump blood through the circuit ?
What vessel carries blood from the left ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
- aortic semilunar valve
What vessel carries blood from the right ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
- pulmonary trunk
- pulmonary semilunar valve
Describe the status of the valves during ventricular systole (contraction)
- atrioventricular - closed
- semilunar - open
Describe the status of the valves during ventricular diastole (relaxation)
- atrioventricular - open
- semilunar - closed
What two arteries originate at the base of the ascending aorta?
right and left coronary arteries
List the main branches of the L coronary artery.
Match each to its description.
1. travels left around the heart in the coronary sulcus
2. travels inferiorly in anterior interventricular sulcus
- 1. circumflex artery
- 2. anterior interventricular artery
List the main branches of the R coronary artery. Match each to its description.
1. travels toward the apex along anterior right ventricle
2. travels inferiorly in posterior interventricular sulcus
- 1. right marginal artery
- 2. posterior interventricular artery
What do we call an interconnection between arteries that allows collateral circulation?
There are 3 main veins that drain blood from the heart into the coronary sinus.
1. in the anterior IV sulcus and L coronary sulcus
2.In the posterior IV sulcus
3. along the right ventricle and R coronary sulcus
- 1. Great cardiac vein
- 2.middle cardiac vein
- 3. small cardiac vein
Why does blood bypass the pulmonary circuit in the fetus and when does this end?
- -lungs are collapsed causing pressure in vessels
- -first breath
What do we call the hole in the fetal interatrial septum and what does it becomes?
foramen ovale to fossa ovalis
What do we call the short vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk of the fetus to the aorta and what does it becomes after birth?
ductus arteriosus to ligamentum arteriosum