Chapter 21

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Author:
gweenbott
ID:
94261
Filename:
Chapter 21
Updated:
2011-07-16 23:33:08
Tags:
anatomy
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Description:
The heart
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  1. What circuit of the heart carries carbon dioxide rich blood from the heart to the gas exchanging surfaces of the lungs?
    • Pulmonary circuit
    • -right side
  2. What circuit of the heart carries oxygen rich blood from the heart to the body's tissues?
    • Systemic circuit
    • -left side
  3. What is the space that contains the heart'scavity as well as large blood vessels, respitory tubes, and the esophagus called?
    mediastinum
  4. Describe the position of the heart in the chest
    2/3 to the left of the midline
  5. The heart is contained within its own container/wrapper formed by an inner serous layer and an outer fibrous layer. What is the term for this wrapper?
    pericardial sac
  6. Epicardium
    outer layer
  7. myocardium
    middle, muscular layer
  8. Endocardium
    inner layer, continuous with lining of blood vessels
  9. Cardiac muscle cells are connected by specialized junctions that both tie the cells together and allow ions to pass through. What do we call these specialized junctions?
    intercalated discs
  10. What structure, consisting of bands of collagen and elastic fibers, stabilizes the muscles and valves of the heart and isolate the atrial and ventricular muscle to allow independent contraction?
    fibrous skeleton
  11. The heart has a number of grooves on its surface that divide the chamber superficially and contain blood vessels.
    Name them
    • coronary sulcus
    • anterior interventricular sulcus
    • posterior interventricular sulcus
  12. coronary sulcus
    between atria and ventricles
  13. anterior interventricular sulcus
    anteriorly between ventricles
  14. posterior interventricular sulcus
    posteriorly between ventricles
  15. What structures seprate the left and right portions of each chamber type?
    • interventricular septum
    • interatrial septum
  16. Interventricular septum
    separate the ventricle
  17. interatrial septum
    separate the atria
  18. What is the function of the heart valves?
    To prevent the back flow of blood.
  19. What chamber of the heart receive blood from the body or the lungs?
    Atria
  20. List 3 vessels that drain into the right atrium
    • 1. superior vena cava
    • 2. inferior vena cava
    • 3. coronary sinus
  21. List the vessels that drain into the left atrium
    pulmonary veins
  22. What valves separate the atria from the ventricles?
    • Atrioventricular
    • - between the L atrium and L ventricle
    • Tricuspid
    • -between the R atrium and R ventricle
  23. What structure attached to the atrioventricular valves and muscles in the ventricles look like white strings?
    Chordae tendineae
  24. What muscles, found in the ventricle, are attached to these strings and help ensure proper valve function?
    Papillary muscles
  25. What chambers pump blood through the circuit ?
    Ventricles
  26. What vessel carries blood from the left ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
    • aorta
    • aortic semilunar valve
  27. What vessel carries blood from the right ventricle and what valve is found between the chamber and this vessel?
    • pulmonary trunk
    • pulmonary semilunar valve
  28. Describe the status of the valves during ventricular systole (contraction)
    • atrioventricular - closed
    • semilunar - open
  29. Describe the status of the valves during ventricular diastole (relaxation)
    • atrioventricular - open
    • semilunar - closed
  30. What two arteries originate at the base of the ascending aorta?
    right and left coronary arteries
  31. List the main branches of the L coronary artery.
    Match each to its description.

    1. travels left around the heart in the coronary sulcus
    2. travels inferiorly in anterior interventricular sulcus
    • 1. circumflex artery
    • 2. anterior interventricular artery
  32. List the main branches of the R coronary artery. Match each to its description.

    1. travels toward the apex along anterior right ventricle
    2. travels inferiorly in posterior interventricular sulcus
    • 1. right marginal artery
    • 2. posterior interventricular artery
  33. What do we call an interconnection between arteries that allows collateral circulation?
    Anastomosis
  34. There are 3 main veins that drain blood from the heart into the coronary sinus.
    1. in the anterior IV sulcus and L coronary sulcus
    2.In the posterior IV sulcus
    3. along the right ventricle and R coronary sulcus
    • 1. Great cardiac vein
    • 2.middle cardiac vein
    • 3. small cardiac vein
  35. Why does blood bypass the pulmonary circuit in the fetus and when does this end?
    • -lungs are collapsed causing pressure in vessels
    • -first breath
  36. What do we call the hole in the fetal interatrial septum and what does it becomes?
    foramen ovale to fossa ovalis
  37. What do we call the short vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk of the fetus to the aorta and what does it becomes after birth?
    ductus arteriosus to ligamentum arteriosum

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