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  1. what is the signaling that was developed by the International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
    Signaling System 7 (SS7)
  2. is used to perform out-of-band signaling in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
  3. Enhances the PSTN by handling call establishment, exchange of information, routing, operations, billing, and support for Intelligent Network (IN) services.
    also call control
  4. switch information messages to set up, manage, and release telephone calls as well as to maintain the signaling network.
    The SS7 network is used to
  5. what type of signaling network is SS7
    common-channel signaling
  6. SSP
    • ssp- tandom switch that connects voice circuits
    • scp-cloud
    • stp-backbone switch,
    • a
    • b
    • c- diff higher hierical links
    • E-links are used to interconnect an SSP to an alternate STP
    • F-links are used to directly interconnect two signaling endpoints..resident to residental
  7. what is the SS7 network architecture built for
  8. also are referred to as signaling points, endpoints, exchanges, switches, or nodes
    separate the voice network from the signaling network
    signaling elements
  9. acts as a routing address in SS7.
    numerical point code
  10. Each signaling message contains the
    source and destination point code address.
  11. Service Switching Point (SSP)
    Signal Transfer Point (STP)
    Service Control Point (SCP)
    3 types of signaling elements
  12. are end office or tandem switches that connect voice circuits and perform the necessary signaling functions to originate and terminate calls.
    SSP Service Switching Point
  13. routes all the signaling messages in the SS7 network.(route traffic in clooud)
    STP Signal Transfer Point
  14. provides access to databases for additional routing information used in call processing. ( who the call goes to
    The key element for delivering IN applications on the telephony network.
    SCP Service Control Point
  15. End office SSPs originate and terminate calls, and core network switches (STPs) provide tandem or transit calls.
    provides circuit-based signaling messages to other SSPs for the purposes of connecting, disconnecting, and managing voice calls
    SSP Service Switching Point
  16. protocols used are ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) or channel associated switching (CAS).
    SSP Service Switching Point
  17. end office is in charge of translating subscriber protocol requests into SS7 messages to establish calls.
    SSP Service Switching Point
  18. uses dialed number to complete the call unless its an 800 or 900 number then it sent to
  19. route or switch all the signaling messages in the network based on the routing information and destination point code address contained in the message.
    STP Signal Transfer Point
  20. logical connectivity between SSPs without requiring direct SSP-to-SSP links
    STP Signal Transfer Point
  21. STPs are configured in pairs and are mated to provide
    "considered the home STPs for the directly connected SSP or SCP."
    reduncy and higher availability
  22. is capable of performing global title translation.
  23. network's job to properly route circuit-based SSP packets to the destination.
  24. network's job to properly route non-circuit based message packets between the SSP and the database interface known as the SCP
  25. also measure traffic and usage. Traffic measurements provide statistics such as network events and message types,
    STP Signal Transfer Point
  26. is used to centralize the SCP and database selection versus distributing all possible destination selections to hundreds or thousands of distributed switches.
    STP Global Title Translation
  27. If the SSP is unaware of the destination SCP address, it can send the database query to itslocal
    STP Signal Transfer Point
  28. STP looks at the global dialed digits and through its own translation table to resolve the following
    • point code address ( internal nnumber) of the appropriate SCP for the database
    • The subsystem number of the database
  29. defines network interconnection and separates capabilities into specific areas of functionality
    STP Hierarchy
  30. Where can the STP implementation occure
    multiple levels
  31. The local, regional, and national STPs transfer standards-based SS7 messages within
    the same network
  32. International STPs provide international connectivity where the same
    International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards are deployed in both networks
  33. what can gateway STP provide
    • protocol conversion from national versions to the ITU standard
    • Network-to-network interconnection points
    • Network security features such as screening
  34. can be deployed and installed on separate dedicated devices or incorporate them with other SSP
    functions onto a single end office or tandem switch
    STP functions
  35. CCS7 is the ITU-T version of
  36. provides the interface to the database where additional routing information is stored for non-circuit based messages.
    Service Control Point (SCP)
  37. provide the interface to the system's database.
    Service-provider SCPs
  38. The interface between the SCP and the database system is accomplished by a standard protocol, which is typically
  39. Provides the routing information for special numbers, such as 800, 877, 888, 900, and 976 numbers.
    800 databases
  40. Provides subscriber or user information such as screening and barring, calling-card services including card validation and personal identification number (PIN)
    authentication, and billing.
    Line Information Database (LIDB) ( services you are paying for)
  41. Provides the 10-digit Location Routing Number (LRN) of the switch that serves the dialed-party number
    Local Number Portability Database (LNPDB)
  42. used to route the call through the network, and the dialed-party number is used to complete the call at the terminating SSP.
    Location Routing Number (LRN)
  43. Used in cellular networks to store information such as current cellular phone location, billing, and cellular subscriber information
    Home Location Register (HLR) ( cellphone data base roaming)
  44. Used in cellular networks to store information on subscribers roaming outside the home network
    Visitor Location Register (VLR)
  45. All signaling points in the SS7 network are connected by
    signaling links
  46. The signaling links are typically 56- and 64 kbps data network facilities, either on standalone lines or extracted on channelized facilities such as structured
  47. is the simplest form of signaling, in that the signaling and voice paths are directly connected between the two signaling endpoints.
    signal and voice floows the same path
    Associated signaling
  48. uses a separate logical path for signaling and voice
    The signaling messages travel through multiple endpoints before reaching the final destination
    most common for SS7 network
    Nonassociated signaling
  49. uses a separate logical path for signaling through the minimal number of transfer points to reach the final
    network delay is minimized
    more expensive
    Quasi-associated signaling
  50. A link
    b link
    c link
    d link
    e link
    f link
    • a= interconnects between signaling endpoints and STPs
    • B= interconnects between two mated pairs of STPs.
    • c=interconnect an STP with its mate.
    • d=are used tointerconnect mated STP pairs of one hierarchical level to mated STP pairs of another hierarchical level.
    • e= used to interconnect an SSP to an alternate STP.
    • f=are used to directly interconnect two signaling endpoints.
  51. Signaling links are grouped together into WHAT when the links are connected to the same endpoint
  52. provide load sharing across all the links in a linkset.
    signaling endpoints
  53. occurs when signaling endpoints re-address the messages to adjacent point codes.
    Load sharing across combined linksets
  54. have statically predefined routes for destination endpoints.
    The route is made up of linksets; linksets can be part of more than one route
    Signaling Routes
  55. routing tables to provide alternate routes when the current route is unavailable.
  56. availability of signaling in the SS7 network is critical to connect and serve telephone network users.
    Signaling Link Performance
  57. provide the necessary load sharing and redundancy required to maintain SS7 network reliability.
    STP mated pairs and linkset configurations
  58. how may layers does the SS7 protocal stack have
    4 layers
  59. L1, L2, and L3 provide the transport protocols for all other SS7 protocols
    includes network interface specifications, reliable transfer of information, and message handling and routing
    Message Transfer Part (MTP)
  60. provides end-to-end addressing and routing for L4 protocols such as transaction capabilities application part (TCAP).
    Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
  61. primarily is a link-by-link signaling system used to connect telephone or speech calls as well as facsimile calls.
    Telephone User Part (TUP)
  62. is a circuit-based protocol used to establish and maintain connections for voice and data calls
    ISDN User Part (ISUP)
  63. provides access to remote databases for routing information and enables features in remote network entities
  64. the physical and electrical characteristics of the signaling link.
    MTP L1
  65. protocol is used to create reliable point-to-point links between endpoints in a network.
    uses packets called signal units to transmit SS7 messages
    MTP L2
  66. protocol routes SS7 messages and relies on the delivery of messages from MTP2.
    also uses primitives to communicate to L4 protocols such as SCCP, ISUP, TUP, and TCAP
  67. routes SS7 messages during normal conditions
    identifies whether the destination address is the receiving endpoint or whether the message needs to be routed
    Signaling Message Handling (SMH)
  68. Determines the SS7 message's destination endpoint address.
    SMH Message Discrimination
  69. Identifies the user and delivers the user information (SCCP, TUP, ISUP, TCAP, or network management) in the SS7 message to the upper-level protocol.
    User part function is not provisioned.
    User part function is out of service.
    SMH Message Distribution
  70. Interfaces with MTP2 to route messages over the network.
    SMH Message Routing
  71. personnel statically maintain signaling endpoint routing tables
    service providers
  72. function reroutes traffic in the SS7 network.
    handles the rerouting of traffic through alternate links or linksets during network link failures.
    the flow of traffic to specific endpoints during network link failures.
  73. Monitors and controls the individual links of the signaling endpoint.
    link management
  74. Exchanges routing information and status between signaling endpoints.
    route management
  75. Routing problems are transmitted using
    transfer messages
  76. Used to reroute or divert traffic and control congestion during network failure conditions
    traffic management
  77. MTP2 monitors the level of messages queued in buffers (both output and retransmission) and alerts SNM in case of congestion.
    congestion control
  78. provides networkservices on top of MTP3
    CAP typically uses WHAT? services to access databases in the SS7 network.
    services enable the STP to perform Global Title Translation (GTT)
  79. the combination of SCCP and MTP3 is called
    Network Service Part (NSP)
  80. SCCP supports services for TCAP and ISUP
    Connection-Oriented Services
  81. SCCP provides the transport layer for the connectionless services of TCAP
    Together, SCCP and MTP3 transfer non-circuit based messages used in these services
    Connectionless Services and Messages
  82. maintain the transfer of SCCP messages during failure conditions, including network and subsystem failures.
    SCCP management functions
  83. was the first SS7 user part defined when all calls were considered voice calls
    supports physical circuit connections but is unable to handle the virtual connections and bearer circuits
  84. connects, manages, and disconnects all voice and data calls in the PSTN.
    sets up and tears down the circuits
    subscribers include ISDN, analog, and ISDN-to-analog users.
  85. provides thetransaction capabilities carried out by non-circuit based messages used to access remote databases and invoke remote feature capabilities in network elements
    first used for 800-number translation.
  86. The Intelligent Network (IN) also uses WHAT? to invoke features in remote end offices
  87. The database information is used for 800, 888, and 900 service,
    Local Number Portability (LNP),
  88. uses SCCP and MTP to route transaction messages in the SS7 network
    messages to communicate from one signaling point (Exchange X) to another signaling point (Exchange Y).
Card Set
CH 4
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