Chromosomal Inheritance

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Geoff
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94273
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Chromosomal Inheritance
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2011-07-17 00:21:36
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BIOL Inheritance
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Study cards for Chapter 15 "Chromosomal Inheritance" BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. Something that can be passed on from generation to generation is a/an ____________ factor.
    inheritable
  2. Which was mapped first mitosis or meiosis?
    mitosis
  3. When was mitosis mapped?
    1875
  4. When was meiosis mapped?
    1890
  5. The realization that genes at specific locations, called loci, played a role in the transmission of inheritable factors led to the:
    Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
  6. Initial work on chromosomal mapping was done with:
    drosophilia flies
  7. How many pairs of chromosomes do drosophilia flies have?
    four
  8. What do we call the recessive phenotype of drosophilia flies?
    mutant
  9. Are "wild type" drosophilia flies dominant or recessive?
    dominant
  10. X-linked alleles are traits that are carried on the:
    X chromosome
  11. If an X-linked trait is recessive, will it be expressed more often in males or females?
    males
  12. Why are males more likely to express a recessive X-linked allele?
    they only have one X chromosome
  13. True or False: If a women is homozygous recessive for an X-linked trait, all of her sons will express the recessive allele.
    True
  14. Which chromosome is larger, X or Y?
    X
  15. If a male has a recessive allele for trait Q, what two gametes can he produce?
    Xq and Y
  16. How many autosomal chromosomes does a female human have?
    44
  17. How many chromosomes does a sperm have?
    23
  18. What two sex chromosomes could a sperm have?
    X or Y
  19. How many possible sex chromosomes could a human egg have?
    only one
  20. Homo Sapien diseases that are the result of genetic information on sex chromosomes are known as:
    human X-linked disorders
  21. An X-linked disorder that causes progressive weakening of the muscles is:
    Duchenne musclular dystrophy
  22. True or False: Humans with Duchenne muscular dystrophy live to average life expectancy.
    False - they will die in late teens/early twenties due to progressive organ failure
  23. Hemophilia is a disease characterized by an:
    inability to clot blood
  24. What are the three types of cones that are responsible for color vision?
    • blue sensitive
    • green sensitive
    • red sensitive
  25. Which of the three types of cones in your eyes are coded for on autosomal chromosomes?
    blue sensitive
  26. When we say a person is color-blind, we mean that they are specifically:
    red-green colorblind
  27. List the three human X-linked disorders discussed in class.
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    • hemophilia
    • color-blindness
  28. Why was hemophilia so prevalent in the British royal family in the past?
    because they were inbred
  29. True or False: During embryonic development, one of a females X chromosomes becomes inactive.
    True
  30. The inactive X chromosome in a female cell condenses and becomes a:
    Barr body
  31. If a female is heterozygous for an X-linked trait, half of her cells will express the dominant, while half express the recessive. This is due to:
    X inactivation
  32. True or False: In regards to X inactivation, the dominant allele still overrides the recessive.
    True
  33. What is a linkage group?
    a group of genes, physically located close to each other on a chromosome, that are transmitted together
  34. What is the purpose of a linkage map?
    to map out the location of genes on a chromosome to determine which alleles are transmitted together
  35. What is a polyploid?
    an individual with more the 2n chromosomes
  36. An individual with 3n chromosomes is called a:
    triploid
  37. An tetraploid is an individual with ____ chromosomes.
    4n
  38. Which are more likely to exhibit polyploidy, plants or animals?
    plants
  39. True or False: Polyploidy results entirely from genetic manipulation.
    False - polyploidy is mostly an evolutionary adaptation, although some genetic manipulation has occured
  40. An individual that exhibits monosomy is missing ____ of a certain chromosome.
    one
  41. A person with (2n-1) chromosomes has a condition known as:
    monosomy
  42. An individual with (2n+1) has condition known as:
    trisomy
  43. A person with trisomy has ____ of a particular chromosome.
    three
  44. Three of chromosome #21 results in a condition known as:
    Down's Syndrome
  45. Monosomy and trisomy occur due to:
    nondisjunction
  46. When can nondisjunction occur?
    during meiosis
  47. Improper chromosomal separation during meiosis is known as:
    nondisjunction
  48. If nondisjunction occurs during meiosis I, all resulting gametes will be:
    abnormal
  49. If nondisjunction occurs during meiosis II, what percentage of gametes could still be normal?
    1/2 or 50%
  50. List the six genetic mutations discussed in class.
    • deletion
    • duplication
    • insertion
    • inversion
    • translocation
    • substitution
  51. When a piece of DNA gets "clipped out," you have what kind of mutation?
    deletion
  52. When one area of a chromosome can be found twice, you have what kind of mutation?
    duplication
  53. When two areas of a chromosome have "flip-flopped," you have what kind of mutation?
    inversion
  54. When a piece of genetic material has been transferred from one chromosome to another, you have this type of mutation.
    translocation
  55. When a random piece of DNA is spliced into a chromosome, you have this type of mutation.
    insertion
  56. When one piece of a chromosome is replaced with another, you get this type of mutation.
    substitution

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