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An aggregation point at the CO that is a high-density cross-connection point where subscribers’ loops
are connected into a feed cable (hundreds of pairs in a single cable)
PSTN Distribution Frames
connects coropration to the telephone system
Distribution frames with smart switching or encoding equipment
Often used to facilitate DSL
Aggregates large bunches of customer copper loops into optical links to connect to the CO (for an organization, for example)
Main Distribution Frame (MDF)
Distribution frame where building cabling converges( exits the building then)
Inside wiring ( all the cable owned by the company and it could be outside
Building Distribution Frame (BDF)
Privately owned cabling and wiring on the customer side of the demarc
customer ownes bdf and mdf
Aggregated and centralized cross-connect blocks, terminals or patch-panels.
Customer Premise (CP) Distribution Frames
Any equipment installed by the phone company at the customer’s site for use in terminating voice calls
Switch (usually a PBXor KTS)
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE
between mdf and public stwitch telephone network ) usually a patch pannel because they don’t to be respossible
The point at which telephone company-owned facilites
Usually a cross-connect or wiring terminal near or
outside a building
The point at which the phone company’s troubleshooting stops (without additional fees)
Demarc (demarcation point)(
Signaling used to serve analog phones
An FXS interface is on a switch, and has a phone connected to it
Uses FXO signaling
Analog phone to an FXS
FXS (foreign exchange station)
Signaling used by phones or PBXs that are connected to the CO switch
Uses FXS signaling
FXO (foreign exchange office
A physical connection to the PBX
Capable of carrying one concurrent call
The one concurrent phone call
One line can have multiple line appearances
Multiple phones ring simultaneously
When answered on any phone in the group, the ringing stops
A call destined for a particular phone rolls to another channel depending on why the phone is currently unavailable
Private Hunt Groups
Next available channel when phone is on a
Sequential hunt group
Rolls to the next available channel when not answered or when first phone is in a call.
Ring no answer (RNA)
A group of phones in a home is not a ring group or hunt group
The rules governing call-routing behavior of the
Standard telephony service is commonly referred to
Provides a dial tone to rotary and touch-tone telephones
Plain Old Telephone Service
Signaling System 7 (SS7) messaging and service enablers areWHAT**to operate these features.
Enables calls to follow as the subscriber moves from one location to another
Indicates an incoming call when the subscriber is already involved in a call
Enables subscribers to conference a third party in on a conversation
three way calling
Provides a convenient way for subscribers to store frequently used numbers (this is often provided via the memory of the end-user phone)( short Cut
Enables subscribers to add a second line that they can identify by a distinctive ring and call-waiting tones
SS7 messages and functions are then invoked and sent within the network to perform the requested operations.
SS7 is needed
Enables the subscriber to dial a code after he or she receives a harassing call, which notifies the local law enforcement agency
subscriber receives a busy signal. This feature notifies the subscriber whenthe called party line is free by placing the call. (This feature is also referred to as camp on.)
Enables the subscriber to easily return a missed call.
Requires a display telephone to display the calling name and calling number.
Enables the called party to hide his or her identity when dialing subscribers who have CLASS
Calling number blocking
Enables subscribers to accept, reject, or forward calls based on a list of received calling numbers.
PSTN-based voice mail enables SPs to offer an alternative to answering machines.
Enables subscribers to store and play recorded greetings and receive, review, and distribute messages from outside users
Enables subscribers to receive faxes and view them at a later time
are important to SPs because they represent a large portion of SP's revenue base.
cost-effectively interconnect corporate voice traffic between multiple locations over the PSTN
Virtual Private Voice Networks
enables SPs to offer smaller businesses voice and data services similar to those found in larger and more costly private solutions
have large volumes of incoming calls and need to be able to efficiently handle and distribute these calls among multiple agents
Call Center Services
Efficiently routes incoming calls to multiple answering stations.
Automatic call distribution (ACD
Enables SP switches to communicate to the call center computer for appropriate call routing and handling.
Switch-Computer Applications Interface (SCAI)—
services are internal functions provided in the background to support PSTN users. They include number translation, routing, calling services, and special assistance
enable SPs to maintain, access, and translate information used to support special service and access numbers.
Centrally located and accessible to all end offices
databased provide what
- 800 number services.
- 900 number services—Typically used for providing information, contest call-in numbers, and public opinion polls
- Calling card services—Enable subscribers to access long-distance services from almost any type of PSTN access.
- Authorization services—Establish access to VPN services and provide security against fraud. Activation and validation are enabled through five- to seven-digit
- authorization codes.
By simply dialing 0, hotel guests can reach a hotel operator who can provide room rate information
Toll and assistance
available by dialing a three-digit national code or an area-specific code.
search for telephone numbers based on directory listings
The bulk of this intervention is for collect calls, third-party billing, calling cards, and credit card services